General Chemistry 1404
Dr. Beer
Columbia University
Tentative Course Outline - DRAFT
Notes: This is a brief list of topics to be covered in the course and on exams.
Refer to the file
“Assignments” for specific reading assignments in the text.
Part 1.
Molecular Description of the States of Matter
Excluded Topics
Chapter 5: Section 5.12 (atmospheric chemistry), gaseous diffusion on p. 166
Chapter 16: Sections on "Bonding in Metals" and "Metal Alloys" in Section 16.4 as well as 16.5,
16.8, 16.9 and 16.12
Chapter 17: "Water as a solvent" pp. 851-3, "Reverse Osmosis" p. 870, Section 17.8
Chapter 5 – The Gaseous State
Characteristics of gases, Pressure
Empirical Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, PV = constant (at const. n, T), Charles Law, V/T = constant
(at const. n, P), Avogadro’s Law, V/n = constant, the absolute temperature scale, Combined Gas
Laws, PV/T = constant, Ideal Gas Law, PV = nRT; PM
m
= dRT and other chemical calculations
with the gas laws
Partial pressures - Dalton’s Law (P
A
= X
A
P
T
); applications: collecting a gas over water
Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) – postulates and relation to gas laws, derivation of PV = nRT
Kinetic energy and temperature: types of molecular speeds, e. g. rms speed, u
rms
= (3RT/M
m
)
1/2
Molecular effusion; rate is proportional to 1/(M
m
)
1/2
Effusion rates, collision theory (collision rates with a wall or other particles and mean free path)
Real gases; the van der Waals equation; interpretation of the deviations from P and V in the ideal
gas law (constants a, b) and their relation to energetics of gas motion (the Lennard-Jones
potential, i. e. volume effects and intermolecular interactions).
Memorization/Operational Skills List
Definition of pressure
Plots of empirical gas laws and use of them to calculate P, V, T, n, M
m
, d and in stoichiometric
chemical equation calculations
Calculating partial pressures including collecting a gas over water
Know KMT postulates and how they can be used to derive gas laws
Plots of molecular speed vs. temperature; calculation of molecular speeds and effusion rates
Use of equations from collision theory and rates
Understanding the effects of gases due to deviations from non-ideal gas behavior; calculations of
P and V with the van der Waals equation
Chapter 16 – Solids, Liquids and Phase Transitions
Differences between gases and condensed phases (lecture)
Intermolecular forces – ion, dipole, induced dipole effects. London forces (molar mass
dependence) and van der Waals radii, hydrogen bonding
The basis and energies of intermolecular forces (Lennard-Jones potential revisited)
Kinetic molecular theory and condensed phases (escape energies)
Interpretation of properties of condensed phases (melting, boiling etc…)