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Unformatted text preview: Exam 1  List of Handouts, Constants, Conversions, and Equations (1 of 2 pages) Handout: Periodic Table with atomic weights to four significant figures Constants: Avogadro’s Number, N A = 6.022 x 10 23 particles/mol Molar gas constant, R = 0.08206 Latm/moldeg = 8.314 joules/moldeg Boltzman constant, k = 1.3807 x 1023 J/K Speed of light in a vacuum, c = 2.9979 x 10 8 m/s Standard acceleration of gravity, g = 9.807 m/sec 2 Conversion Factors: 1 Pa (Pascals) = 0.986923 atm 1 torr =133.322 Pa (kg/ms 2 ) 1 atm = 760 mm Hg (torr) 1 Joule = 1 Newton = 1 kgm 2 /s 2 = 10 7 erg 1 eV = 1.602 x 1019 Joule 1 cal = 4.184 J o C = 273.15 K 1010 m = 1 Å = 100 pm = 0.1 nm 1 amu = 1.661 x 1027 kg Equations: u =speed u avg = average speed û 2 = average of the square of the speed n = moles g = gravitional acceleration constant m = mass, molality M = molarity M m = molar mass d = density, diameter of a particle, distance between points in a lattice V = potential energy, volume P = pressure E k = kinetic energy Z = collision frequency λ = mean free path A = area r = radius e = edge of unit cell X = mole fraction, concentration (Henry’s law) Π = osmotic pressure K = molal constants i = van’t Hoff factor (mole of particles in solution/moles of solute dissolved) Exam 1  List of Handouts, Constants, Conversions, and Equations (2 of 2 pages) P = gdh PV = nRT M m = mRT/PV P = dRT/M m (P+a(n/V) 2 )(Vnb) = nRT P = nRT/(Vnb) – a(n 2 /V 2 ) P A = X A P total X A = n A /n Total = P A /P Total PV = (1/3)Nmû 2 Kinetic energy, E k = (½)mu 2 Average kinetic energy (per mole), Ε k = (½)N A m û 2 = (3/2)RT Average kinetic energy (per molecule), Ε k = (3/2)kT u rms = (û 2 ) 1/2 = (3RT/M m ) 1/2 [from KMT] f (u) = 4 π (m/(2 π k B T)) 3/2 u 2 exp(mu 2 /(2k B T)) [Maxwell Boltzman distribution of u] u avg = (8RT/ π M m ) 1/2 u mp = (2RT/M m ) 1/2 Effusion rate α (1/ M m ) 1/2 Collision rate with wall, Z w = (N A /4V)(8RT/ π M m ) 1/2 A Molecular collision rate, Z 1 = 4(N/V)d 2 ( π RT/M m ) 1/2 Mean free path, λ = u avg /Z 1 n λ = 2dsin θ ( θ angle of incidence and reflection) cubic cells: primitive (e = 2r), bodycentered ((3) 1/2 e = 4r) and facecentered ((2) 1/2 e = 4r) r cation /r anion = 0.225 (tetrahedral); 0.414 (octahedral);0.732(cubic) Mole fraction X i = n i /n total Molality = (moles solute)/(kg solvent) Molarity = (moles solute)/(liter of solution) Mass percent = (gms solute/gms solution) x 100% Raoult’s Law, P A = X A P A Vapor pressure lowering (nonvolatile solute) ∆ P 1 = P 1P 1 , ∆ P A = X A P AP A = X B P A Vapor pressure of volatile solutes, P total = P A + P B = X A P A + X B P B (note: P A = P A X B P A ) Henry’s Law, P A = k H X A , Boiling point elevation, ∆ T b = K b m, ∆ T b = iK b m Freezing point depression, ∆ T f = K f m, ∆ T f = iK f μ Osmotic pressure ,Π = MRT, Π = iMRT Exam 2  List of Handouts, Constants, Conversions, and Equations (p. 1 of 1) Handout: Periodic Table with atomic weights to four significant figures...
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 Spring '09
 LuaraKaufman/RubenGonzalez
 Atom, Periodic Table, Kinetic Energy, Amount of substance, Hoff, significant figures Constants

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