ProblemSet4 - BIS103-001 Spring 08 Study Question Set 4 for...

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BIS103-001 Spring 08 Study Question Set 4 for Midterm 2 - 1 - Study Question Set 4 for Midterm 2 This set contains questions on Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Enzyme Regulation, Lipid Metabolism, Glyoxylate Cycle, Questions on PPP 1. List the biologically important functions of the pentose phosphate pathway. 2. Explain the metabolic fate of glucose 6-P under each of the following metabolic conditions: (a) much more NADPH than ribose-5-P is required, (b), much more ribose 5- P than NADPH is required, and (c) the needs for both ribose 5-P and NADPH are such that 1 mole of ribose-5-P is needed for every 2 moles of NADPH produced. Questions on Enzyme Regulation 3. What are the effects in muscle of the following on the rates of glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown? a. inhibiting adenylate cyclase b. increasing the adrenaline concentration in the blood 4. Which of the following statements about hormones are correct? a. Insulin increases the rate of glycogen synthesis in the liver. b. Insulin is secreted in response to low levels of blood glucose. c. Glucagon and epinephrine have opposing effects on glycogen metabolism. d. The effects of insulin, glucagon, and adrenaline are mediated by cyclic AMP. 5. Place the following steps of the reaction cascade of glycogen metabolism in the proper temporal sequence. a. Phosphorylation by catalytic subunit of cAMP dependent protein kinase b. Formation of cAMP by adenylate cyclase c. Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase b d. Hormone binding to target cell receptors 6. Caffeine inhibits cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolases. What effect would this inhibition have on glycogen metabolism when epinephrine levels are dropping in the blood? 7. During a fight or flight situation, the release of adrenaline promotes glycogen breakdown in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. The end product of glycogen breakdown in the liver is glucose. In contrast, the end product in skeletal muscle is lactate. Why are different products of glycogen breakdown observed in the two tissues?
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BIS103-001 Spring 08 Study Question Set 4 for Midterm 2 - 2 - Questions on Lipid Metabolism and Glyoxylate Cycle 8. The hydroxy acid given below can be completely oxidized to acetyl-CoA by beta-oxidation. Write the series of individual reactions that will accomplish this degradation. Then write the overall sum showing how much ATP, CoASH and NAD + is required and how much NADH, acetyl-CoA, etc., are produced on a per molar basis. Use structural formulas for all substrates and products and standard abbreviations for cofactors (e.g., NAD + , ATP); balance all equations. 9. Calculate the net number of moles of energy-rich phosphate (ATP equivalents) that should be produced when one mole tricaproin is oxidized in liver mitochonridria completely to CO 2 and H 2 O via beta oxidation and the carbons of glycerol are oxidized to CO 2. Show all calculations.
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ProblemSet4 - BIS103-001 Spring 08 Study Question Set 4 for...

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