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updated051408Midterm2CommonNZsandstudyguide - Fatty acid...

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UPDATED 5/15/08 Midterm 2 covers: Handbook pages 42-73! Includes: Pentose Phosphate Pathway (roles in cell, how different parts operate when cellular needs are different) Know purposes of NADPH, what is glutathione, do not memorize pathway. Enzyme and pathway regulation (types of regulation, which enzymes are regulated, why, common allosteric regulators, advantage of partial futile cycling) Hormonal control of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in humans (which hormones, when do they increase in blood-that is, under what physiological conditions, what effect do they have on CHO and fat metabolism). Fatty acid breakdown- activation reaction, intracellular site, what is one turn, what is strategy to oxidize reduced compound, ATP yield Ketone body synthesis (what they are, be able to recognize, in which organ are they made, in which organ are they catabolized, what is their biosynthetic precursor, under what physiological conditions are they synthesized) What propionyl coA breaks down into (ans. succinyl CoA) do not memorize details of steps
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Unformatted text preview: Fatty acid synthesis- intracellular site, ATP, NADPH cost, 4 steps reiterated to reduce to hydrocarbon. The reactions of electron transport chain, ATP synthase, Chemiosmotic hypothesis, PMF, coupling of ETC and ATP synthesis. Uncouplers- how they work. Learn biochemical principles, structures, names of common enzymes, partial futile cycling, steady-state Common Enzyme Names for Midterm 2 Remember glycogen (starch) synthase, glycogen (starch) phosphorylase, PFK-1 from last time. Remember types of reactions: dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, kinases, phosphatases, isomerases, transferases, ligases, etc (check out enzyme name page). New: Protein kinase A Adenylate cyclase Glycogen phosphorylase a Glycogen phosphorylase b Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Isocitrate lyase Malate synthase Know electron carriers, what they accept and donate, recognize structures Complex I Complex II Complex III Complex IV ATP synthase...
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