PSYC 101_studyguide2

PSYC 101_studyguide2 - PSYC 101- Study Guide [5 areas]...

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PSYC 101- Study Guide [5 areas] Midterm 2 1. Development of Language and Symbol Use a. Generativity: use finite set of words to make infinite set of meanings i. Phonological Development: phonemes, units of sound ii. Semantic Development: morphemes, smallest unit of meaning iii. Syntactic Development: grammar, syntax iv. Pragmatic Development: understand variety, conventions v. Infant Directed Talk: warm, affectionate, high pitch. extreme intonation, slower speech vi. Prosody: cadence, melody, tempo with which language is spoken b. Social Interactions i. Intersubjectivity: sharing of a common focus of attention by 2 or more people ii. Joint attention: looking and reacting to the same thing, same referent iii. Overextension: use word in a broader context, effort to communicate iv. Whole object assumption: 1. Children to expect a novel word to refer to a whole object, not a part v. Mutual exclusivity assumption 1. Children to expect that a given entity will have only one anme vi. Syntactic bootstrapping vii. Overregulation: speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular eg. “breaked” viii. Dual representation: understand something as real object and symbol eg. map c. Theories of Language Development i. Nativist View 1. Universal grammar that is innate and common to all languages 2. Modularity hypothesis: brain contains language module 3. Evidence: universal and species-specific nature 4. Critique: focuses on syntax and ignores communicative role ii. Interactionist View 1. Everything of lang. dev. is influenced by its communicative function iii. Connectionist View 1. Language dev. result of gradual strengthening of connections in neural network 2. Conceptual Development a. Concepts- general ideas or understandings that can be used to group other things b. Perspectives i. Nativists: innate, domain-specific understanding of concepts ii. Empiricists: concepts arise from basic, general learning c. Categorical Hierarchies:
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i. Children form categories to figure out things by dividing objects into categories
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PSYC 101_studyguide2 - PSYC 101- Study Guide [5 areas]...

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