PSY 105 Study Guide 1

PSY 105 Study Guide 1 - PSYC 105 |Midterm 1- Study Guide|...

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PSYC 105 |Midterm 1- Study Guide| 1. Intro a. Computational complexity i. Observations that many cognitive procedures are impractical because of the time and effort needed to evaluate the very large # of alternative possibilities b. Constraints i. Natural assumptions, biases that favor some possibilities over others c. Introspection: subjects report on mental processes d. Behaviorism: only interested in observable behavior e. Cognitive Revolution: dissatisfaction with behaviorism, performance distinction, unable to account for complex behavior f. Cognitive Neuroscience Techniques i. EEG ERP 1. Electrodes on scalp, poor spatial resolution 2. Detect changes- good temporal resolution (~time) ii. PET 1. Uses radioactivity to trace chemicals in brain 2. Good spatial resolution (tracks neuron/blood flow) for localization 3. Poor temporal resolution iii. fMRI 1. magnetic field detects H atoms (blood flow) – no radioactivity 2. limited temporal resolution = PET 3. better spatial resolution than PET 2. Learning a. Fixed-Action Potentials (FAPs) i. Stereotyped, species-specific behaviors triggered by genetically preprogrammed releasing stimuli (e.g. tailorbird’s nests) b. Habituation i. Behavior is decreased due to repeated exposure to stimulus (e.g. ticking of clock) 1
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PSYC 105 |Midterm 1- Study Guide| c. Imprinting i. Learning attachment that is formed at a particular period of life and difficult to reverse d. Critical Periods: Language learning, birdsong e. Preparedness i. E.g. Taste Aversion and Chemotherapy; solution: scapegoat ii. TABLE Consequences C u e s Nauseous Pain Sweet Acquires Aversion Does Not “Click” Does Not Learns Defense f. Continuum of Learning Flexibility i. Relatively inflexible learning useful when environment highly stable or predictable ii. More flexible learning allows organisms to adapt to uncertain environment iii. Trade-off between flexibility and cognitive resources g. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) i. Respondent behavior is a physiological or emotional responses elicited by stimulus 1. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – produce response prior to any learning (food) 2. Unconditioned Response (UR) – (e.g. salivation) 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – (e.g. tone, bell) 4. Conditioned Response (CR) – learned behavior (e.g. salivation) 5. “Extinction” of CR, when CS followed by no US. 6. “Blocking”—stimulus 1 block effects of stimulus 2, resulting in no CR to stimulus 2 ii. Social Darwinism: race superiority / Watson (Little Albert experiment)= more egalitarian Extinction Counter conditioning Nongradual Exposure Flooding Gradual Exposure Systematic Desensitization 2
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PSYC 105 |Midterm 1- Study Guide| iii. Extinction: Flooding iv. Counter conditioning: [Fear Factor] v. Gradual exposure: going up the hierarchy vi. Psychoimmunology: anticipatory suppression or enhancement of the immune system (CR) in response to CS. h.
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PSY 105 Study Guide 1 - PSYC 105 |Midterm 1- Study Guide|...

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