PSY 105 Study Guide 2

PSY 105 Study Guide 2 - PSYC 105 |Midterm 2- Study Guide|...

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PSYC 105 |Midterm 2- Study Guide| 1. Memory IV a. False Memories ” w/ Elizabeth Loftus i. Can be very vivid, but only a product of our imagination (e.g., Paul Ingraham) 1. Cognitive Interview (details, slow, unbiased, reverse order recall) ii. Implanting false memories by: suggestions, hypnosis, lies 1. Hypnosis: helps remember but (suggestions) can replace old memories (e.g. Nadine) iii. Confabulation: wild stories (e.g., outerspace) 1. When contradicted, person tries to take facts and make sense of it iv. Loftus’ Imagined Hand Injury Experiment 1. Told subject to imagine a childhood experience, subject believed it! 2. Source amnesia can lead to false memory v. Kassin “alt” key Experiment 1. Confederate: “I saw you kind of hit ‘alt’” 2. Will participant confess? = everybody a. 2/3 believed, 1/3 formed new memory of it. b. Related vs. Unrelated words (Roediger, 1995) – hate, wrath, enrage – but recalled mad i. In complex (real world) situations, “encoding is not focused on remembering the situation, but on understanding it” 1. The process of understanding leads to better memory ii. Meaning is a function of both input and activated knowledge 1. Use existing knowledge in LTM to understand current info (input) 2. E.g., “sisters reunited after 18 years in supermarket checkout line” a. 2 interpretations c. Schemas i. “Activated knowledge” 1. How do we know which is relevant? ii. Schema 1
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PSYC 105 |Midterm 2- Study Guide| 1. “Generalized knowledge structure used for understanding tells what to expect and what unstated information may nonetheless be inferred as present.” iii. “Understanding consists of constructing an integrated representation” 1. Can understand the input when all pieces fit together 2. Make inferences to connect it d. Reverse Recall i. Witness can recall more information ii. Geiselman (1990): 1. No schema for event in reverse; non-schematic retrieval a. Less intrusions form schema b. More incidental info recalled iii. In real world situations, “encoding is not focused on remembering the situations, but on understanding it” 1. Process of understanding leads to better memory 2. Experience doesn’t fit a schema? a. Memory is reconstructive (adaptive new experience to fit with existing schema) e. New knowledge: misleading information i. Loftus (1974) 1. Car accident- verb: smashed/hit/contacted a. Type of words affected how subjects remembered the accident ii. Loftus (1978) 1. Stop-sign/yield sign said ‘yield’ in the question 2. Misinformation effect a. Mislead subjects more often chose photo that matched info b. Why? i. Misinformation acceptance- accept new info as correct ii. Source confusion- source and content dissociated 2
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PSYC 105 |Midterm 2- Study Guide| iii. Subjects still recalled info from narrative after informed that it was incorrect f. Flashbulb Memories i. Vivid photograph-like memories of a significant personal or historical event ii.
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2010 for the course PSY 105 taught by Professor Peterzell during the Winter '09 term at UCSD.

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PSY 105 Study Guide 2 - PSYC 105 |Midterm 2- Study Guide|...

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