COGS 11 - USCOGS 11 Minds Brains Lecture 1/8 1 Early...

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Lecture 1/8 1. Early philosophers a. Self awareness b. Mini-person inside c. Irreducible core of self- “nature of a soul”/ Dualism 2. Neuroscience a. Physical study of neurons and etc. of brain 3. Neuroscience in the news a. Amber Ramirez i. ½ brain removed as a teenage, can still smile ii. Shows the brain’s plasticity [moldable and changeable] iii. Alzheimer’s can be delayed by 10 years 1. Be mentally active 2. Exercise b. Rusty Gage i. Exercise profound effect on brain 4. Computer Science a. Want to model and build b. Matthew Nagle i. Quadriplegic implanted chip that transmits commands to the mouse by using his thoughts Lecture 1/10 1. What is neuroscience? a. The study of the nervous system, both central and peripheral b. More broadly, it is the study of the mind and brain, conducted by studying both the brain and behavior, including clinical and symptoms and ‘normal’ behavior 2. Reductionism a. Describe circuitry b. Don’t explain behavior b/c i. Too complex ii. Can’t give ex- or inhibitory, etc. iii. Hormone- changes/ rewire circuitry 3. Reflexology a. Rene Descartes i. Believed he can explain behavior by looking at mechanical behavior in terms of stimulus effect ii. Found fluid-filled tubes, connected to the brain NERVE IN BRAIN reflexively foot iii. 2 parts: Dualism {Wrong!} 1. Soul makes up my free will and mind makes up my physical nature 4. Cognitive Neuroscience a. Cognitive Science i. The study of intelligent (cognitive) systems, biological or otherwise b. Neuroscience c. Cognitive Neuroscience i. ----- 5. Phineas Gage a. 1848- construction, frontal orbital lobe, didn’t die of infection b. Changed personality: no control of impulses, etc. 1
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6. Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience a. Brain damage b. Other brain trauma (strokes, tumors, degeration) c. Anomalies of memory, language or perception (agnosias, blindness) d. Recording of brain activity (EEG to fMRI) e. Brain stimulation (TMS) Lecture 1/15 Let the Mind Games Begin 1. Aristotle a. De Anima i. On the soul or on the mind b. Interested in things mental c. Aristotle was an empiricist he collected his own data d. Middle ages: data only came from him e. The Logic of Final Causes i. Aristotle believed that the existence of an object and its corresponding function was proof enough of its necessity f. Efficient causes i. Both Copernicus’ heliocentric model and Ptolemy’s geocentric model explained the motion of the planets, and predicted eclipses and the tides ii. But Copernicus’ model was much simpler 2. The middle ages a. Religion permeated every aspect of life b. All human explanations accounted for Biblical truth c. Stasis was a hallmark period 3. Rene Descartes a. Cartesian coordinates b. His solution to mind/body problem i. Ventricles in the brain ”thoughts” (pineal ) c. Before Descartes, people believed that mental powers routinely affected the physical world 4. Interactions between internal and external reality a. Both to be completely bound together
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2010 for the course COGS 11 taught by Professor Boyle during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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COGS 11 - USCOGS 11 Minds Brains Lecture 1/8 1 Early...

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