Competition

Competition - Biology 2290F/GTeam Project (Krajnyk Unit,...

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Biology 2290F/G—Team Project (Krajnyk Unit, Rm. 331 NCB) Effect of density on plant growth Competition is an interaction between two or more organisms when both or all individuals are negatively affected by the interaction. That is, individuals perform less well in the company of a competitor than they would do in its absence. The consequences of competition for an individual can be slower growth, lowered or delayed reproduction, less efficient care of young, serious injury or even death. The results for a population often involve lower values for rate of increase and/or decrease in total population size. Two ‘kinds’ of competition are recognized. When the interacting organisms belong to the same species, the interaction is termed intraspecific competition; when they are of different species, it is referred to as interspecific competition. Interspecific competition, then, is an interaction between organisms of two species in which both are detrimentally affected. There are other types of species interactions such as mutualism (both species beneficially affected), exploitation (one species beneficially affected and the other detrimentally affected) and amensalism (one species detrimentally affected and the other unaffected). Competition between plants may be for (1) water, wherever soil moisture is sub-optimal for even part of the year, (2) nutrients, wherever the concentration of one or more nutrients is sub-optimal, (3) light, wherever luminous energy is sub-optimal for one plant as a result of shading by another, (4) heat, wherever in cold environments radiant energy is intercepted by the canopy of one plant to the detriment of another, (5) CO 2 , at times in dense vegetation when photosynthesis is vigorous, (6) oxygen, as with organisms in ponds or roots in soil, (7) space, as with algae requiring surfaces to attach holdfasts. Species vary
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Competition - Biology 2290F/GTeam Project (Krajnyk Unit,...

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