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doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0369 , 2531-2540 first published online 29 April 2009 276 2009 Proc. R. Soc. B Rubén Milla, Diana M. Forero, Adrián Escudero and Jose M. Iriondo for fiercer competition among plants? Growing with siblings: a common ground for cooperation or Supplementary data tml http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2009/04/27/rspb.2009.0369.DC1.h "Data Supplement" References http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1667/2531.full.html#ref-list-1 This article cites 46 articles, 9 of which can be accessed free Subject collections (1317 articles) evolution (1097 articles) ecology Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Email alerting service here right-hand corner of the article or click Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions go to: Proc. R. Soc. B To subscribe to This journal is © 2009 The Royal Society on January 6, 2010 rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Downloaded from
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Growing with siblings: a common ground for cooperation or for fiercer competition among plants? Rube ´n Milla * , Diana M. Forero, Adria ´n Escudero and Jose M. Iriondo A ´ rea de Biodiversidad y Conservacio ´n, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipa ´n s/n, E-28933 Mo ´stoles, Madrid, Spain Recent work has shown that certain plants can identify their kin in competitive settings through root recognition, and react by decreasing root growth when competing with relatives. Although this may be a necessary step in kin selection, no clear associated improvement in individual or group fitness has been reported to qualify as such. We designed an experiment to address whether genetic relatedness between neighbouring plants affects individual or group fitness in artificial populations. Seeds of Lupinus angustifolius were sown in groups of siblings, groups of different genotypes from the same population and groups of genotypes from different populations. Both plants surrounded by siblings and by genotypes from the same population had lower individual fitness and produced fewer flowers and less vegetative biomass as a group. We conclude that genetic relatedness entails decreased individual and group fitness in L. angustifolius . This, together with earlier work, precludes the generalization that kin recognition may act as a widespread, major microevolutionary mechanism in plants. Keywords: kin selection; kin recognition; Lupinus angustifolius L.; intraspecific competition; fitness; group selection 1. INTRODUCTION Plant–plant competition is probably the only ubiquitous interaction in plant communities ( Connell 1983 ). Patterns, proposals of mechanisms and theoretical developments in this field have been described in the ecological literature for decades ( Tilman 1982 ; Casper & Jackson 1997 ; Craine 2006 ; Brooker & Kikvidze 2008 ). Yet progress in areas such as root foraging mechanisms, or the interplay between facilitation and competition, shows that the processes involved in plant–plant competition are more complex than previously thought ( Rajaniemi 2007 ; Chu et al .
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