Lecture 010 2010

Lecture 010 2010 - Molecular Genetic Approaches in Weed...

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Molecular Genetic Approaches in Weed Science DNA DNA Marie Jasieniuk Weed Science Program Plant Sciences, UC Davis
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Basic Questions on Weeds that can be answered using molecular techniques 1. What are the origins or sources of weeds? 2. How are weeds spreading? 3. How are weeds adapting to new geographic ranges and changing environments, including management practices? 4. What are the mechanisms underlying herbicide resistance in weeds? 5. What traits and genes determine weediness or invasiveness?
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Three Broad Categories of Studies on Weeds that utilize Molecular Techniques 1. those that examine evolutionarily and physiologically important genes and their products directly 2. those that examine neutral or non-coding DNA 3. those that examine the structure, function, and evolution of weed genomes
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Basics of Molecular Biology Image from National Human Genome Research Institute DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • basic hereditary material in all organisms except some viruses • located in the chromosomes of plant and animal cells • has a double-stranded helical (coiled) structure
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The Structure of DNA DNA carries genetic information in the sequence of N bases
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Coding and Non-coding DNA
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Three Categories of Studies on Weeds that utilize Molecular Techniques 1. studies that examine evolutionarily and physiologically important genes and their products directly today, most commonly used to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying herbicide resistance involves sequencing putative resistance genes and identifying mutations that result in amino acid substitutions in herbicide target enzymes approach not as useful for studying non-target-site resistance since underlying genes/gene families are usually unknown
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Glyphosate’s target site: 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) Shikimate pathway: synthesis of aromatic amino acids glyphosate’s target site Glyphosate Resistance
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The EPSPS Gene From: Clee et al. 1987
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Amino acid number: Amino acid: Nucleotide sequence: 103 Ala GCG 104 Met ATG 105 Arg CGG 106 Pro CCA 107 Leu TTG 108 Thr ACG 109 Ala GCD a Pop-1 (S) - - - - - - GCT Pop-1 (S) - - - - - - GCA Pop-1 (S) - - - CCG b - - GCG Pop-24 (S) GCA b - - - - - GCA Pop-24 (S) - - - - - - GCT Pop-2 (R) - - - GCG c Ala - - GCG Pop-9 (R) - - - TCG c Ser - - GCG Pop-9 (R)
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2010 for the course PLS PLS 176 taught by Professor Fischer during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture 010 2010 - Molecular Genetic Approaches in Weed...

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