{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Pscyh_7_NOTES_9_24_09_1 - ragerra The world is knowable The...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ragerra The world is knowable The world is ultimately understandable We can discover laws of nature There are reliable methods for gaining this knowledge and understanding Two Chief Methods of Science Empiricism. All of science relies on empiriclsm: the facts of science depend on obserVations that are open to others and are repeatable (replication). Replication is' important because sometimes not everyone “sees” what the observer sees—a good indication that the phenomenon is not real. Also, sometimes the observer unwittingly influences the behavior being observed as in Clever Hans (the horse that could detect eyebrow movements of the questioner) or the Hawthorne Effect (improvements in attendance and work output were the result of feeling that the workers were being watched and also fear for their jobs). Without making explicit the procedures that the research followed, we would never know how fallible they are. This was illustrated in class with an example of an experiment of boys and girls being “dependent” on their mothers. v Falsifiability. The activity of science includes making observations, generating hypotheses that explain those observations, and most of all, testing'those hypotheses with new observations. This latter activity involves the process of disconflrman‘on. This is where the scientist tries to falsify the hypothesis under consideration. This does not included gathering evidence in support or in continuation of the hypothesis, but actually includes the deliberate effort to find data that will Show that the hypothesis is wrong—falsification. This may sound a bit strange, but consider that thre are many ways that a hypothesis could be correct (even for the wrong reasons) so just because it was correct doesn’t mean the ideas behind the hypothesis are. You will always be a bit undertain about the “truth” of your hypothesis. However, if your hypothesis is" falsfied (i.e., wrong) it can be good news because now you know that the hypothesis was incorrect-nothing ambiguous about that. To quote a poet, “it is nature’s voice saying take up they bed and walk” Four-card problem, One of the major tasks to examine human rationality is called the four—card task. It requires that students consider the most efficient method for testing a hypothesis (or rule). They are shown a rule and then shown the options (equivalent to "experiments”) that they could use to test the rule. The students‘ job is to select the most effective experiments. For example, consider the following hypothesis: If there is a vowel on one side of the card then, there is an even number on the other side "3:1 Ninety percent of students think that they should turn over the "A" and "2" cards. But, when they see a more concrete problem such as the following, they tend to make the correct judgment (turning over the “A" and the “’1” card): Page 3 of 3 If you are drinking, you must be 18 years old or older alcohol milk 18 years 22 vears _ ~ old old. One of many explanations of this is called Confirmation Bias: students are biased to confirm their hypotheses. That is, students (and scientists, I might add) select those tests whose outcomes will likely support their hypotheses rather than the tests whose outcomes will critically evaluate their hypotheses. Students select cards "A" and "2" because the outcomes of these experiments will support the hypothesis (the rule) if the rule is correct, but will only marginally challenge it if the rule is incorrect. The problem is that confirmation is not proof, it’s just support for the hypothesis. The only thing we can know for certain is when our hypotheses are FALSE. Therefore, you should select the “1” card just as you select the “18 year old” card because if the rule is false, you will also see it on the other side of this card which will have a vowel on one side and an odd number on the other side. Or, the alcohol exainple, if the 18 year old is drinking alcohol, the rule is false! ' Course requirements Syllabus . ' The syllabus and other course materials can be accessed from gauchospaceucsbed It will tell you about the readings and the two exams (midterm and final) for the course. Research Requirement Within 24 hours after registering for the course, you will be emailed a packet of information about the reserch requirement for the course. This will give you a research experience or a reading about research experience and tell you how to sign-up on another website for get access to the experiments. This email will give you a sign-on and a password. ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern