Pscyh_7_NOTES_9_29_09 - 2 - Class PSYChOk’gy 7 Lee M Date...

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Unformatted text preview: Class PSYChOk’gy 7 Lee M Date 9/29/09 Next Exam/2mm geranium: 5111mm ''''' ... $33W’ fiatctakmg ém‘mce Notetaker Revlin , Page 1 of 3 _ Copyright © 1996 ASUCSB Reproduction in any form is a violation of Federal Copyright Laws. A.S. Notetaking - 893—4471 ' Open 10:00 — 4:00 Monday - Friday - Closed Finals Week ANNOUNCEMENTS If you wish to get an ADD Code for the class, go to the Psychology Office. Casey or Rose will give you one if there are any left OUTLINE OF LAST LECTURE I. Psychology is the Scientific Study of Mental Life and Behavior A. Goals of Science B. Assumptionsof Science C. Two chief methods of scienCe 11. Requirements for the course A. Tests B. Research requirement OUTLINE OF TODAY'S LECTURE III. Types of Psychological Research A. Archival and Correlational Studies B. Naturalistic Studies C. Case Studies D. Survey Research ’ TODAY'S LECTURE Types of Psychological Research Psychologists engage in many different forms of research, but moSt of the scientifically relevant work falls into five categories Today will be talking about the first four of these. They are: Archival and correlational research, naturalistic observation, case study, survey research and experimental research. Archival Research - This work involves the investigation of past records that could range from relative heights of election winners to what percentage of cave artists were left handed 50,000 years ago. $3.? $332.. $5321"; Researchers sift through historical records and 213m ""“" M“ m" are. an previously collected data to answer questions. In Mum“, class research on cave dwelling and presidential heights were discussed. For example, the graph on the left shows that people tend to elect the taller of mgr/Mm two presidential candidates. Of course, it possible that height is not the important fact, but something that produces height is. Other work on archives ' involves examining databases, such as adoption . 1_85 1.90 1,85 1.80 Lents Might 1.75 130’ 1.55 LSD . ‘z 60 _1.65 2 70 9.75 i 80 LBS 1.80 1.95 2 09 winners might ' rageaoro' studies, longitudinal studies of aging, and twin studies. Correlational Studies This is research that examines the relationship between two sets of variables to determine whether they are associated. The more they are associated, the greater the linear relationship between them: urn-whi- Dropout rate front high school (a) (bi ' Correlated variables When the relationship between two variables is upward (as in figure (a)) we say that there is a positive correlation; when it’s downward (as in figure (b) we still say there is a strong relationship, but that the correlation is negative. Correlated variables without causalifl . Just because variables are related, doesn’t mean that the relationship is one of causality. You can have a low.positive correlation, but the variables are causally related: Smoking and Lung Cancer. Or, you can have a high positive relationship, but not a causally related one such as Shoe size and Knowledge. One limitation of correlational studies is that they can mislead you into thinking that variables that go together may cause each other. Correlation tells us nothing about the direction of the relationship between two variables or whether either of them really causes the other. The only way to test for a causal connection is by manipulating one of the variables and. observing whether the value of other one naturally changes as a result. This is why experiments are performed; they allow us to detect whether there is a causal link among variables. MW These are part of a broader class of? research that are termed “descriptive” because they motivation of the research is to describe what is present in a situation and not to disturb it. They are called naturalistic because they are in-depth observations of behavior in its natural setting. Sometimes the researcher is present and known to the participants being observed (such as occurred in the famous Hawthorne study) but on most other times the researcher tries to be invisible to the participants. Such studies are referred to as “unobtrusive”. Some examples of naturalistic studies were Piaget’s study of his own children’s reasoning and social interactions and Jane Goodall‘s work observing Chimpanzees. The advantage of naturalistic studies is that they can be generalized to similar situations. This is especially the case when the observer is unobtrusive. The disadvantage of such studies is you rage J 01 J can’t really determine what the causes of the behavior are; you only know what has occurred. To determine cause requires manipulation of events in the environment—not a naturalistic observation. Case Studies ’ A case study is an in-depth study of an individual person or a small number of them. it usually involves interacting with the participant by asking questions. Most often the questions are “open- ended”. That is, they do not limit the person’s response to yes/no, but encourage full discussion of an issue from the person’s perspective. This is also a “descriptive” technique because to the best of your ability you try not to be too obtrusive and direct the person, but open to whatever possibilities that occur. One difficulty with case studies is they are subject to the influences of the investigator, who may ' come to the situation with his/her owrr biases and this may unconsciously affect the way that the participant responds. This was illustrated in class with Clever Hans and other examples that come under the general heading of The Rosenlhal Efiizct. This is manifested in cases where the so-called independent observer actually influences the behavior that is being measured and in so doing‘ creates” the data of their actions. For example, school teachers who make assumptions about the intelligence of the students and use that to interpret the kid’s behavior. it 1s a self- fulfilling prophecy 1n creating the kind of child you think you have. Case studies limit the researcher’s ability to generalize to the broader population. Survey Research Survey research asks questions are large numbers of people on attitudes and behavior The questions are designed to test hypotheses about people. Typically, the questionnaires are either paper-and-pencil (or on-line) or they are done by interviewing people' in person or on the telephone. There are three major concerns about such research. First, the answers to questions tend to be influenced by the wording of the questions—whether choices are affirmatively or negatively expressed. This was illustrated in class by‘ ‘condoms are 95% successful/condoms have a 5% failure rate”. Although both ways of expressing the fact rs true, the participant’s response is affected by the phrasing of the question. The second concern is whether the people being sampled are representative of the population as a whole. So much of psychological research is performed at universities that people wonder whether the findings generalize to the non-university population. There are many results of surveys that have been in error because the people were selected for participation without proper care that they sampled correctly from the broader population.'This occurred for example, when surveys were done by phone, assuming that most people were listed in the phone books. To be so listed, people must (a) be willing to have their number listed, (b) be affluent enough to have a phone, and (c) not primarily use a cell phone (which is characteristic of college-aged people). Political surveys performed basically on land lines aren’t going to be worth much if young people register and get out and vote. That will be fun! The third concern is whether the‘survey is able to detect whether the respondent is telling the truth. Most political surveys done in the present election are aware that people may be lying about their feelings concerning Obama’ 5 race One survey by Zagat assumes that between 5% to 7. 5% of people are lying about being racist. i hope students register and vote. ...
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