Siml2l~tlUlQQUl§arn121ingEachmember ofthe populationhasanequalch,Ulceofbeingincluded.StratifiedrandomsamplingThepopUlationisdividedintostrrl(afollowedbyrandomsamplingfTOmeachstratum..,Areaprobabilitysamplingiswhenthestrata consistofgeographkareas.QuotaslUllPlinllAsampleischosentoreflectthenumericalcomposition ofvarioussubgroupsinapopulatiOr1.l'IaphllZ<ll+.!l"QQn}'el1i~ul<Q"sam_Subjectsarechosenina.haphazardway.usuallybased011whoeverisavailable.Worrisome OuestionsThere are five categoriesofworrisome question characteristics that may contributetobiases in thepeople's answers to survey questions:ItTelevant questionsLeading questions .Loaded questionsNegatives in a questionPush Pollingirrelevant questions.These are questions that don't really allow a testofthe author's hypotheses.They ask questions that are related to the topic, but not right on the topic and the data are thereforemeaningless with respect to the hypothesis. For example, asking
This is the end of the preview.
access the rest of the document.