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Astronomy Review; Test 2

# Astronomy Review; Test 2 - Connor Scribner Astronomy 1400...

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Connor Scribner Astronomy 1400 March 2, 2009 Astronomy Review; Test 2 Chapter 4 What is the law of conservation of energy? Pg. 130, 206-207: This law tells us that energy cannot appear out of nowhere and disappear into nothingness. What are the three basic categories of energy? The energy of motion; kinetic Energy Energy carried by light; radiative Energy Stored Energy; potential energy What is temperature on a microscopic level? Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of particles. For a particular object, a higher temperature simply means that the particles on average have more kinetic energy and hence are moving faster. How is temperature different from heat? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. What does an objects gravitational potential energy depend upon? An objects gravitational potential energy depends on its mass and how far it can fall as a result of gravity. Is energy stored in matter itself? Yes. What is the meaning of E=mc^2? Einstein discovered that mass is a form of potential energy, and he expressed the idea that mass can be converted to other forms of energy with this formula. E = amount of potential energy m = mass c = speed of light This equation tells us that a small amount of mass contains a huge amount of energy.

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Connor Scribner Astronomy 1400 March 2, 2009 Who first wrote out the law of gravity mathematically? Isaac Newton What is Newton’s law of gravity mathematically? Fg = (G)(M1xM2/D^2) Fg = force of gravitational attraction G = gravitational constant ( 6.67 x 10^-11 m^3/(kgxs^2)) M1 & M2 = masses of the two objects D = distance between the masses two centers If the mass of an object doubles, how does the force of gravity between this object and another change? What if the distance between the objects doubles? If you drop a mass on a planet, does the acceleration of gravity depend upon the planet you are on? If so, how? Does it depend upon the mass of the object that you dropped? What is the difference in mass and weight? Mass is the amount of matter in your body. Weight is the force that a scale measures when you stand on it; that is, weight depends both on your mass and on the forces acting on your mass. What is your mass in free fall? Your mass will be constant no matter what the conditions are. What is your weight? You are weightless when in freefall. How does an apple falling to earth have any connection to the ideas that explain the moon orbiting? (Newton’s Apple Story) Do heavy objects fall faster than light ones (when there is no air resistance)? Yes. How did Newton correct Kepler’s first Law? Third?
Connor Scribner Astronomy 1400 March 2, 2009 How did Newton interpret Kepler’s second law? Can orbits change spontaneously? Why or why not? Hint: Think about law of conservation of energy.

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