BIOL 1610 CHAPTER 1 - CHAPTER 1 A VIEW of LIFE Biology(bio life logos discourse is The study of life ProTisTa Algae pro'rozoa slime molds

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: A VIEW of LIFE Biology (bio: life + logos: discourse) is The study of life ProTisTa Algae, pro'rozoa, slime molds Animalla - - -_‘_ I. ‘ v-‘l" ‘ I Mold, mushroom, and yeast =50ME .COM‘MONL¥ RECOGNIZED CHARHCTERISTI‘CS of LIFE -'.Co_mpo_se.d of cells - Genome - Reproduction - Evolution and -' Nie_T-ab_ol_-is_m - HomeosTas-is - E'=x_c.i-’r-abili”r_y Adap‘Ta-‘r-ion LIVING ORGANISMS are COMPOSED of CELLS I Prokaryo’ric cells TWO of cells. Eukaryo’ric cells - pro = before + karyo: seed, nucleus - ea: True, good + karya= seed, nucleus - Smaller (1-10 pm) - Larger (10-100 pm) - Lack membrane-enclosed organelles and nucleus - Membranous organelles - inTernaI comparTmenTs - BacTeria and Archaea - Nucleus = membrane bound region surrounding DNA Eukaryo'ric cell Plasma membrane Cyfoplasm “- Prokaryofic cell |«._ E._ DNA (no nucleus) _ ._ u . Plasma membrane Organelles rel?“ " - / E 1 pm: Nucleus (confains DNA) l/ UNICELLULAR vs. MULUCELLULAR Muli‘icellular organisms are made of several ’ro billions of cells Unicellular organisms consist of one cell 250 um I._._.| . (a) Uniceilular organisms consist of one intricate cell that performs all the functions essential to life. Ciliates, such as this Paramecium, move about by beating their hairlike cilia. uni-“min... a . I (b) Multiceilular organisms, such as this African buffalo {Syncerus Gaffer) and the plants on which it grazes, may consist of billions of cells specialized to peflorrn specific functions. 9 mm Ibo-maul Hw em Figure 1-1 p 3 GENOME — “RECIPE” for an ORGANISM The Genome is all of The gene’ric ma’rerial in a cell or organism and consisTs of 100s ’ro 1000s of genes DNA is-deoxyribonucleic acid ' Helical molecule described by Watson and Crick - Con’rains' encoded gene’ric informa'rion - Gene — uni'i' of genetic information That codes for a proTein Thai influences a par’ricular ’rraiT e.g. morphology, physiology, behavior Figure 1-7 p 8 920D? Thomson Higher Emu-lion REPRODUCTION — PRODUCTION of OFFSPRING Reproduction transmits genetic information from one generation to another 1) Asexual reproduction — only one parent: produces clones genetically identical to parent 2) Sexual reproduction — typically involves two parents and the production of gametes ° Ova 2 female gametes + Sperm 2 male gametes —> Offspring with genes from both ova and sperm 100 pm (a) Asexual reproduction. One individual gives rise to two or more offspring that are similar to the parent. Difilugia, a unicellular amoeba, is shown dividing to form two amoebas. [b] Sexual reproduction. Typically, two parents each contribute a gamete (sperm or egg). Gametes fuse to produce the offspring “Wt-"Wm" which has a combination of the traits of both parents. A pair of tropical flies are shown mating. OMYMHwEm EXCITA BILITY — LIVING ORGANISMS RESPOND +0 SHMULI (b) The edges of the leaf come together and [a] Hairs on the leaf surface of the Venus interlock, preventing the fiy‘s escape. The leaf flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) detect the touch then secretes enzymes that kill and digest of an insect, and the leaf responds by folding. the insect. physistiffen-chemiGal'thgar-=in'-'th-e.2en-!i-ir-on.mentfiljiigure 1-13.. P Light METABOLISM “9'9" and HOMEOSTASIS Photosynthesis ! Heat 1) Autotroph are Producers - organisms that synthesize food from simple raw materials 2) Heter‘otr‘ophs use other organisms as food ° Consumer's — ingest other organisms - Decomposer‘s — absorb the wastes and remains of other organisms Energy flow through the biosphere: producers —> consumers —> decomposers Figure 1—13 p 14 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG METABOLIC PROCESSES (Figure 1—12, 14) Some used as raw materials fuel :0THEB' SYNTHESIS CELLULAR _ aemmes- 'Manufaomre-of" HESPIRATION '- Homeostasis needed materials Biological process i-Movement of” and structures of breaking down materials in molecules out. ofiieflis 9 'Groviithz'and. development. _ ° Reproduction. EVOLUTION — populaTions of organisms change over Time Charles Darwin (1809-1882) proposed naTural selecTion NaTuraI selecTion —organisms wiTh favorable genomes survive and reproduce and Thus TransmiT Their geneTic informaTion To fuTure popuIaTions 0 Populnllon wilt mlod Inherited main 1 9 Efimlnnfion al' Individuah with oomln Itth El Hopmduuton of sunrle l 0 Incmdng humane]! ul traltu ihm enhance mu! and nproducilw some: ADAPTATIONS are PRODUCTS of EVOLUTION mmm . --- .' ' ’ afi'h;- “I'z. . w. , ,. _ __ a 7.. AdapTaTions are inheriTed morphological, physiological, and behavioral characTerisTics ThaT enhance an organisms survival in a parTicuIar environmenT (Figure 1-5r p 5) .a‘lil ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2010 for the course BIOL 1610 taught by Professor Jimblevins during the Spring '10 term at Salt Lake Community College.

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