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CH10-Chromosomes,-Mitosis,-and-Meiosis-part-03

CH10-Chromosomes,-Mitosis,-and-Meiosis-part-03 - PRO...

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Unformatted text preview: PRO KARYOTIC GENOMES I Outer membrane pm Cell wall (structures used for Peptidoglycan layer Storage granule Plasmid smaller, circular Flagellum fragments of DNA __ Fiibosomes BocTeriol chromosome single, circular molecule of DNA plasma Figure 24-9 p 513 membrane J" ' " Frokaryolic cell Plasma— 0 DNA replicat'on beg'ns mamb'ane 7 Bacterial at single site Ion bacterial BI NARY FISSION GIEll wall/ chromosome I DNA- Figure 10-11 p 221 Origin of - - '- replication 0 Replication continues, as Two copies replication enzymes work in of bacterial both directions from site DNA where replication began. a Replication is completed. (9 Q Cell begins to divide. as plasma membrane grows inward. o Binary fission is compleie. Two identical prokaryotic cells result. Two identical prokaryotic cells PROPHESE I Synapsis of homologous chromosomes to form lelrads RNAPHASE I Homologous Ch romosomes move to apposna poles PROPHASE II Two n cells wilh duplicalod chromosomes JRNAPHASE II Sisler chromalids move to opposite pales HAPLOED CElLS Four n cells wilh unduplicateo chromosomes COMPARISON of MITOSIS and MEIOSIS I @- Nii'rosis is a single nuclear division 1'ha'l' produces Two daughl'er cells wil'h The same number of chromosomes as The parent cell PROPHASE No synapsis of homologous chromosomes ANA PI-IA SE Sister chromalids move to opposite poles SisTer chroma'rids separa‘ie DAUGHTER CELLS Two 2n cells with unduplicaled chromosomes In Meiosis a diploid germ cell with duplica'red chromosomes undergoes 2 successive divisions producing four haploid cells with unique combinations of genes (tie. gene‘lic recombina‘lion) Meiosis I is a “reduci’ion division” separal'es homologous c’somes reducing c’some number by half Meiosis II separa'res sisTer chroma’rids (more like Mitosis) MEIOSIS I — HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES SEPARATE f INTEHFHASE MEIOSIS E Mid-propnase I Late prophase I Nucloolus Nuclearemelope Tetrad — aligned Chromatin chromatids of homologous c'somes Developing Centrioles meiotic spindle -Chromosomes exist as extended: °Homologous c'somes synapse — lie lengthwise side by side chromatin fibers °Forms tetrads : 4 aligned chromatids -Chromosomes are duplicated (only oNuclear envelope fragments once before meiosis) Metapnasel I _ _ I Anaphasel Tetophasel Jr ‘3‘ a 3‘ A 5' fl ‘3. 7‘ Q ; Microtuoule attached to kinetochore Separation of homologous Siam . chromosomes chromatids -Tetrads line up on cell's midplane -Homologous c'somes separate and One of each pair of homologous -Tetrads held together at chiasmata a move to opposite poles c‘somes is at each pole - ' -5ister chromatids remained attached °C'somes decondense somewhat at their centromeres -Cytokinesis occurs °Interkinesis (interphase-like) usually follows — no 5 phase and therefore no DNA replication SISTER CHROMATIDS SEPARATE DURING MEIOSIS II I MEIOSIS ll Prophase II Meiaphase ll -C'sornes are sfill duplicated ~C'somes Iihe up 'on"ce|l's midplane -5is’rer' chromafids separafe with 2 sis’rer' chromafids "—°*' and move to opposi’re poles- -C'somes condense again °No synapsis or' feh'ads Telophase || Four aploid cells °Nuclei form at opposi’re poles wi’rh one -Four' gametes (animal) or' four' c'sorne from each homologous pair spores (algae/plan’r) are produced -Cy’rokinesis occurs 10 ...
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