Lect_7A_geomorph

Lect_7A_geomorph - Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of...

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Unformatted text preview: Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Geology and Geomorphology Geology and Geomorphology Lecture 7 A Lecture 7 A Example Geomorphological Mapping ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 1 Geomorphic Feature Identification • Define landforms and associated terminology. • Describe the six geomorphic agents that effects the earth’s cover. • Describe the nine major landforms. • Define drainage patterns and texture. Landforms are three-dimensional features of the earth’s surface, formed by natural processes. Landforms commonly contain: • Definite geomorphological framework and repetitive geologic association. • Typical and recurrent pedological, hydrological, and biological properties. • Characteristics of topography, drainage, soil, and ecology. ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 2 Tomelloso, La Mancha, Spain Upper Terrace Terrace Drain Upper Terrace Calcareous uplifted terraces Tomelloso, La Mancha, Spain Middle Bench Flood Plain Upper Bench Cut-fill alluvial benches ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 3 Principle Geomorphic Agents That Bring About Changes on the Earth’s Crust 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. Tectonics Tectonics Running Water Running Water Glacial Ice Glacial Ice Wind Wind Ground Water Ground Water Wind Driven Waves Wind Driven Waves Geology and and Geomorphology Geology and and Geomorphology Geologists often use remote sensing in conjunction with in situ n Geologists often use remote sensing in conjunction with iin situ observation to identify the lithology i.e., physical character of rock ithology observation to identify the llithology i.e., physical character of rock types. The different rock types are formed by one of three types. The different rock types are formed by one of three processes: processes: ••igneous rocks are formed from molten material; igneous rocks are formed from molten material; ••sedimentary rocks are formed from the deposition of particles sedimentary rocks are formed from the deposition of particles of pre-existing rocks and plant and animal remains; or of prepre-existing rocks and plant and animal remains; or ••metamorphic rocks are formed by applying heat and pressure to metamorphic rocks are formed by applying heat and pressure to previously existing rock. previously existing rock. Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 4 Effect of Folding Effect of Folding (Compression) and (Compression) and Rifting (Pulling Rifting (Pulling Apart) on Apart) on Horizontally Horizontally Bedded Strata Bedded Strata Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Frenchman Mountain, Great Basin ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 5 Types of Faults Types of Faults Types Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Normal Fault Along the Wasatch Mountain Range in Utah Normal Fault Along the Wasatch Mountain Range in Utah Normal as Recorded on Landsat Thematic Band 4 Imagery as Recorded on Landsat Thematic Band 4 Imagery Wasatch Mountains Spanish Fork River Wasatch Fault Wasatch Fault Springville Springville Spanish Fork Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 6 Landsat MSS Image of Lake Tahoe Landsat MSS Image of Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada of California in the Sierra Nevada of California Lake Tahoe Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Drainage Patterns Drainage Patterns ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 7 Interpreting Drainage Patterns Interpreting Drainage Patterns Drainage patterns provide clues about bedrock lithology, Drainage patterns provide clues about bedrock lithology, topography, soil texture, soil permeability. topography, soil texture, soil permeability. Type of landform present Type of landform present ••Dendritic Dendritic ••Parallel Parallel ••Deranged Deranged ••Pinnate Pinnate ••Annular Annular ••Anastomotic Anastomotic ••Trellis Trellis ••Dichotomic Dichotomic ••Rectangular Rectangular ••Braided Braided ••Sinkhole (doline) doline) Sinkhole((doline) ••Radial (Centrifugal) and Centripetal Radial (Centrifugal) and Centripetal Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Drainage Patterns: Dendritic, Trellis, and Rectangular Drainage Patterns: Dendritic, Trellis, and Rectangular Drainage Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 8 Drainage Patterns: Parallel, Radial and Centripetal, Annular Drainage Patterns: Parallel, Radial and Centripetal, Annular Drainage Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Drainage Patterns: Dichotomic, Braided, and Anastomotic Drainage Patterns: Dichotomic, Braided, and Anastomotic Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 9 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 10 Landform Classification 1. Landforms Developed on Horizontal Strata 2. Landforms From Folded Structures 3. Fault-controlled Landforms 4. Igneous Landforms 5. Fluvial Landforms 6. Landforms Caused by Glaciation 7. Aeolian Landforms 8. Shoreline Landforms 9. Karst Landforms ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 11 Remote Sensing of Landforms Remote Sensing of Landforms Developed on Horizontal Strata Developed on Horizontal Strata Landsat Thematic Mapper Color Composites Landsat Thematic Mapper Color Composites of a Portion of the Grand Canyon of a Portion of the Grand Canyon Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 TM Bands 4,3,2 (RGB) TM Bands 4,3,2 (RGB) TM Bands 7,4,2 (RGB) TM Bands 7,4,2 (RGB) ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 12 Geologic Cross-section of the Grand Canyon in Arizona Geologic Cross-section of the Grand Canyon in Arizona Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 13 Remote Sensing of Landforms Remote Sensing of Landforms Developed on Folded Strata Developed on Folded Strata ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 14 Landsat Thematic Landsat Thematic Landsat Mapper Band 4 Image of Mapper Band 4 Image of the San Rafael Swell in the San Rafael Swell in Southern Utah Southern Utah Hogback ridges San Rafael Swell Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 The swell is aalarge flat-topped The swell is largeflatflat-topped monoclinal upwarp bounded by monoclinal upwarp bounded by hogback ridges on the southern hogback ridges on the southern and eastern flanks. The more and eastern flanks. The more resistant hogback ridges are resistant hogback ridges are composed of sandstone, while composed of sandstone, while the less resistant shale beds have the less resistant shale beds have been eroded. been eroded. Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Igneous Landforms Igneous Landforms ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 15 Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Pyroclastic material volcano Pyroclastic material volcano ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 16 Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Remote Fluvial Landforms Fluvial Landforms natural levee point bar forest oxbow lake man-made manlevee Landsat Thematic Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery Mapper Imagery of the Mississippi of the Mississippi River Bands River Bands 4,3,2 (RGB) 4,3,2 (RGB) January 13, 1983 January 13, 1983 meander scars Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 17 Landsat Thematic Mapper Band 4 Imagery Landsat Thematic Mapper Band 4 Imagery of Alluvial Fans, Pediments, and Playas of Alluvial Fans, Pediments, and Playas pediment alluvial fan pediment playa White Mountains Alluvial fan, several pediments, and aaplaya Alluvial fan, several pediments, and playa associated with an area in the White Mountain associated with an area in the White Mountain Range northwest of death Valley, California Range northwest of death Valley, California ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 18 Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Remote Glacial Landforms Glacial Landforms Taylor Valley An ice sheet is defined as “a mass of ice and snow of considerable Taylor thickness [ >1000 m] and large area [ >50000 km2]. Ice sheets may be resting on rock or floating [Plate G-2]. (Armstrong et al., 1973). ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 19 Oblique Oblique Panchromatic Panchromatic Aerial Photography Aerial Photography of Glacial Moraines of Glacial Moraines Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 20 Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Remote Eolian Landforms Eolian Landforms ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 21 Crescentric Dunes Crescentric Dunes Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 22 Remote Sensing of Remote Sensing of Remote Shoreline Landforms Shoreline Landforms ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 23 Landsat Thematic Mapper Landsat Thematic Mapper Color Composites of Morro Bay,California Color Composites of Morro Bay,California Morro Rock inlet beach ridge or spit dune Morro Bay Bands 4,3,2 (RGB) Bands 4,3,2 (RGB) Bands 7,4,3 (RGB) Bands 7,4,3 (RGB) Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 Reefs and Reefs and Atolls Atolls Jensen, 2000 Jensen, 2000 ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 24 Lab Exercise 8 Geomorphology 1147 PES Bldg Wednesday, Wednesday, and Monday Printed lab assignment, tracing paper, pencil, pen, and ruler TEXT BOOK Reminder: Mid-Term Wednesday February 18th ERS185 Lecture # 7A February 11, 2009 ERS185 25 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2010 for the course LAWR 111 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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