ch4 - Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain Chapter 4 •Gain a...

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Unformatted text preview: Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain Chapter 4 •Gain a general understanding of the •Gain knowledge of the structure and •Navigate your way around the major •Gain knowledge of the basic function of hormones brain areas and understand their function function of the neuron nervous system Objectives 1 Why study the brain? • N o t lo n g a g o t h e fu n c t io n in g o f t h e b r a in w a s a m y s t e r y • F u n c tio n a l lo c a liz a tio n • late 1700’s to early 1800’s • e a r lie s t fo r m s e e n in p h r e n o lo g y Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 2 Exploring the Brain • le s io n in g • in a n im a ls , b u t a ls o h u m a n s • e le c t r ic a l s t im u la t io n o f d iffe r e n t b r a in r e g io n s • s e e w h a t is a c tiv a te d • T r a n s c r a n ia l m a g n e tic s tim u la tio n ( T M S ) • la r g e m a g n e tic c o il c a u s e s c e r ta in n e u r o n s to fi r e • m u c h le s s in v a s iv e Measuring Brain Activity • s p a tia l r e s o lu tio n • te m p o r a l r e s o lu tio n 3 Electroencephalograph (EEG) P o sitr o n E m issio n T o m o g r a p h y ( P E T ) • r a d io a c tiv e g lu c o s e • s p a tia l r e s o lu tio n • te m p o r a l r e s o lu tio n 4 M a g n e t ic R e s o n a n c e Im a g in g ( M R I) • H e a d is p a s s e d th r o u g h m a g n e tic fi e ld • T h is c a u s e s v ib r a tio n s in n u c le i o f a to m s in th e b r a in • M e asu re s • E x c e lle n t s p a tia l r e s o lu tio n • F M R I- fu n c t io n a l M R I • h ig h e r s p e e d r a d io w a v e s • c a n d e te r m in e b r a in a c tiv ity FM RI Brainstem • p r im itiv e a n d b a s ic fu n c t io n s • c o n n e c ts to s p in a l cord 5 Brainstem Brainstem • m e d u lla 6 Brainstem • pons Cerebellum 7 Limbic System Limbic System 8 Limbic System • H y p o t h a la m u s Limbic System • T h a la m u s 9 Limbic System • P it u it a r y g la n d Limbic System • H ip p o c a m p u s 10 Limbic System • A m y g d a la Cerebral Cortex 11 Occipital Lobe Parietal Lobe 12 Parietal Lobe 13 Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe • p la n n in g a n d a c tio n • s o c ia l in te r a c tio n s • p e r s o n a lity 14 One Brain Two Hemispheres Split-Brain Patients la n g u a g e r ig h t h a n d le f t h a n d 15 Neurons • c o m m u n ic a tio n - w ith in b r a in a n d b e tw e e n • fu n c t io n s • r e c e p tio n • c o n d u c tio n • tr a n s m is s io n b r a in /b o d y 16 Neurons r e c e p t io n t r a n s m is s io n c o n d u c t io n Neurons 17 Parts of a Neuron H ow d oes a n euron w ork? • T w o ty p e s o f c h e m ic a l s ig n a ls • e x c ita to r y - s ig n a l n e u r o n to fi r e • in h ib ito r y - s ig n a l n e u r o n n o t to fi r e • activation threshold• a ll- o r - n o t h in g - i f th r e s h o ld r e a c h e d it w ill fire • action potential- • firing always the same, no difference in strength 18 Action Potential semipermeable membrane + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Action Potential semipermeable membrane ++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 19 Action Potential semipermeable membrane + -+ ++ + + ++ + + + - ++ + + + ++ + action potential Action Potential semipermeable membrane + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + action potential 20 Neuronal Firing C o m m u n ic a tio n B e tw e e n N e u r o n s 21 C o m m u n ic a tio n B e tw e e n N e u r o n s N e u ro n al C o m m u n ic atio n excitatory signals semipermeable membrane ions action potential myelin sheath nodes terminal buttons neurotransmitters synapse receptor site 22 Neurotransmitters • o v e r 7 0 d iffe r e n t t y p e s • d r u g s a n d o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s c a n a ffe c t • agonistsn e u r o tr a n s m is s io n • a n t a g o n is t s- • A c e t y lc h o lin e ( A C h ) - o n e o f fi r s t d is c o v e r e d • m em ory • A lz h e im e r ’ s - lo w le v e ls fo u n d • D o p a m in e • Parkinson’s- L-DOPA used as an agonist • S c h iz o p h r e n ia - o v e r s u p p ly o f d o p a m in e , tr e a te d w ith a n a n ta g o n is t Neurotransmitters 23 • E n d o r p h in s • p a in c o n tr o l- e .g . c h ild b ir th o r e x tr e m e s tr e s s • m o r p h in e - e n d o r p h in a g o n is t • p le a s u r e • S e r o t o n in • d e p r e s s io n - to o m u c h s e r o to n in • a n x ie ty - to o little ( r u n n e r s h ig h ) Neurotransmitters Nervous System • c e n tral n e rv o u s sy ste m (C N S ) • b r a in • s p in a l c o r d - “ i n fo r m a t io n superhighway” • p e r ip h e r a l n e r v o u s s y s te m ( P N S ) • n e rv e s th ro u gh o u t b o d y 24 Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic • voluntary movements • signals from sensory organs A u t o n o m ic automatic signals to and from internal organs and glands regulates internal states • motor commands to muscles Autonomic Nervous System •Sympathetic • a c tio n P a r a s y m p a t h e t ic reduces arousal returns body to pre-action state 25 N e r v o u s S y ste m O v e r v ie w Brain and Body Communication •Is this how it happens? H o w it r e a lly w o r k s . sensory neuron spinal cord brain somatosensory cortex motor cortex spinal cord motor neuron 26 Reflex interneuron sensory neuron • a u to m a tic • in n a te motor neuron Endocrine System • c o lle c tio n o f g la n d s • E x . gro w th , • H o rm o n e s- m e th o d o f c o m m u n ic a tio n r e p r o d u c tio n , d ig e s tio n 27 Endocrine System • O v a r ie s • gro w th , se x , r e p r o d u c tio n 28 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2010 for the course PSC 1 taught by Professor Prokosch during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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