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Chapter II summary - Chapter II Summary Majoritarian or...

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Chapter II Summary Majoritarian or Pluralist Democracy? The Theory of Democratic Government Autocracy: is a system of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of one individual Saddam Hussein is an example. Oligarchy: is a system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of few people Democracy: is a system of government in which the people rule, either directly or indirectly. Scholars believe that the USA, Britain, France and other Western European countries are genuine democracies. The meaning and Symbolism of Democracy Demos in Greek means “the common people” and kratos “power”. Two major schools of thought about what constitutes democracy are: believing that democracy is a form of government and seeing democracy in the substance of government policies, in freedom of religion and provision for human needs. The Procedural View of Democracy Procedural democratic theory: is a view of democracy as being embodied in decision-making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule and responsiveness. Universal Participation: is the concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making. Political equality: is equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally. Although President Lincoln’s vote among his cabinet members counted more then seven opposing combined together (no one ever said that presidents have to run their cabinets democratically) Majority rule: is the principle-basic to procedural democratic theory-that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating, a simple majority. The group does what most participants want. A Complication: Direct Versus Indirect Democracy Participatory democracy: is a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their belief. Originated in Greece, where people ruled themselves, rather than having a small number of notables on their behalf (did not include women, slaves, and those whose families did not live there for generations) In USA there are few states governed by councils. For example, all adult
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