Chapter 13 summary

Chapter 13 summary - Chapter Summary XIII Bureaucracy...

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Chapter Summary XIII Bureaucracy Development of the Bureaucratic State Bureaucracies are large, complex organizations in which employees have very specific job responsibilities and work within a hierarchy of authority. Government at all levels grew enormously during the 20th century. Although there are a number of explanations for this growth, all of them point to the fact that society has become increasingly complex and that the public’s attitude toward business has changed. Recent years have witnessed a movement toward reducing the size of the bureaucracy. The federal workforce has shrunk as a percentage of the American population while state and local governments have increased in their responsibilities, known as devolution . Bureaus and Bureaucrats By examining the basic types of government organizations, such as departments , independent agencies , regulatory commissions and government corporations , we can better understand how the executive branch operates. Most of the bureaucrats who work for the federal government are hired under the requirements of the civil service . System by which most appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made to ensure that government jobs are filled on the basis of merit, and that employees are not fired for political reasons (known as “ patronage ”). Presidents can appoint fewer than 1 percent of all executive branch employees, though the ones they appoint fill the top policymaking positions. Administrative Policymaking: The Formal Process The latitude that Congress gives agencies to make policy in the spirit of their legislative mandate is called administrative discretion . The policymaking discretion that Congress gives to agencies is usually exercised through rule making . These administrative procedures result in the issuance of regulations .
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Chapter 13 summary - Chapter Summary XIII Bureaucracy...

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