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Lecture 4 posted - 448 445 459 450 Frequency(blue 10 10 11...

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BIO 311D LECTURE 4 Microevolution
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Hardy-Weinberg p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
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Hardy-Weinberg Find: Frequencies of the alleles A and a. The genotypic frequencies of AA, Aa and aa.
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The Hardy-Weinberg equation
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Assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem Random mating No natural selection No migration (population is isolated) No mutations Very large population size (no genetic drift)
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So what’s the point of it? (The Hardy-Weinberg theorem)
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Genetic variation changes in a population Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection
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Genetic Drift Data from vending machine packages of m&m ® candies: Phenotype Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Blue 5 1 7 0 13 Non-blue 48 52 47 53 40 Frequency (blue) 9% 2% 13% 0% 25%
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Why are there differences in the frequency of blue m&ms across packages? 1. 2. Tests:
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Phenotype Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Blue 45 51 57 43 54 Non-blue 452
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Unformatted text preview: 448 445 459 450 Frequency (blue) 10% 10% 11% 9% 11% 1. Call/email factory ( http://global.mms.com/us/ ) Frequency of blue = 10% 2. Bigger sample size: The Pounder FYI: M&M color make-up Brown 13% 30% Yellow 14% 20% Red 13% 20% Orange 20% 10% Blue 24% 10% Green 16% 10% Genetic drift: special cases Founder effect Bottleneck effect Examples of bottlenecks Founder effect Natural Selection Fitness Stabilizing selection Directional selection Disruptive selection Balanced polymorphisms Heterozygote advantage 10-20% 5-10% 1-5% Sickle Cell Disease Genotypes Relative fitness Hb-N Hb-N 0.85 Hb-N Hb-S 1.0 Hb-S Hb-S 0.0 Frequency-dependent selection Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism Intrasexual selection Intersexual selection Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution...
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