2 SANES CH 2 2009 + GI (2)

2 SANES CH 2 2009 + GI (2) - Development of the Nervous...

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Development of the Nervous System Chapter 2 Polarity and Segmentation Sanes, Reh and Harris, 2nd Edition There are several important dimensions of polarity and specialization 1. Anterior-Posterior differentiation: brain to spinal cord 2. Dorsal-Ventral patterning: back to belly 3. Regional Specialization in the Cerebral Cortex Honor system: Stay home if you have a fever and think you have the flu
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Initially the entire CNS starts as a single layer of neuroblasts that are formed into a tubular structure, the neural tube.
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Spina Bifida (myelomeningocele)
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No way adult How can gene expression program the changes necessary to make the brain develop at one end and the spinal cord at the other end?
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Control of anterior- posterior axis polarity is much better known in flies than in any other Species.
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Homeobox genes were discovered in Drosophila around 1983 They are transcription Factors with an helical form composed of 60 a.a. domain and many names: Homeotic genes Hox genes Homeobox genes Homeodomain genes
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Located anterior = Bicoid + Hunchback mRNA Located posterior = Caudal + Nanos mRNA Regulate Regulate Gap genes oocyte Very early gene expression initiates segmentation in the embryo Hox genes are very important for instructing the anterior- posterior differentiation of the CNS
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Flies and mice and us share homeobox-containing genes that control anterior-posterior development
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Drosophila ~14,000 genes Mouse = ~22,000 genes Human = ~30,000 genes Human Hox genes name chromosome gene HOXA@ chromosome 7 = HOXA1, HOXA2, HOXA3, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXA6, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXA10, HOXA11, HOXA13 HOXB - HOXB@ chromosome 17 = HOXB1, HOXB2, HOXB3, HOXB4, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7, HOXB8, HOXB9, HOXB13 HOXC - HOXC@ chromosome 12 = HOXC4, HOXC5, HOXC6, HOXC8, HOXC9, HOXC10, HOXC11, HOXC12, HOXC13 HOXD - HOXD@ chromosome 2 = HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, HOXD8, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, HOXD12, HOXD13 How do homologous genes become more precise and complicated?
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OLD, NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR GENE MANIPULATION: 1. X-RAY TESTICLES 2. GIVE TOXINS THAT CAUSE
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2 SANES CH 2 2009 + GI (2) - Development of the Nervous...

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