5 SANES CH 5.3 only 2009 (1)

5 SANES CH 5.3 only 2009 (1) - Chapter 5, Part 3 Sanes, Reh...

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Chapter 5, Part 3 Sanes, Reh and Harris Axon Growth and Guidance Pg. 139 Degeneration and Regeneration in the CNS 1. Neuronal Degeneration in the Adult Nervous System 2. Axonal Degeneration in the Adult Nervous System 3. Neuronal Regeneration in the Adult Nervous System 4. Axonal Regeneration and reconstruction of circuits This is an extension of our discussion of axon guidance focused on the capabilities of the mature nervous system
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NEURONAL DEGENERATION •Brain damage leads to neuronal death: Trauma and Stroke are the most common causes of neuronal cell death in the mature nervous system. These events produce inflammation and swelling as well as loss of brain substance. •Cell death can be due to: 1) necrosis (trauma or stroke [anoxia] or infection, etc) 2) excitotoxic cell death 3) programmed cell death (Chapter 7) •Cell death is affected by levels of neural activity after a lesion in the mature nervous system. Problem : glutamate release from dying cells excites surrounding neurons (excitotoxicity) Shallart experiment with casting after cortical lesion: not too much too soon Nudo experiment with training after cortical lesion: sooner is better
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•Glial cells react to brain injury. Astrocytes – expand and wall off area of damage or infection Microglia – become active in phagocytizing debris Oligodendroglia – myelinate (CNS) - retard regeneration Schwann Cells – myelinate (PNS) - enhance regeneration
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Scanning EM image of blood vessels looking down on the surface of the cerebral cortex
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Tsai, et al., J NS, 2009 (in press) ave = 13 µm 120,000 cells/mm 3 Image from the Kleinfeld lab at UCSD showing all vessels, neurons and glia reconstructed
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2010 for the course NSC 269 taught by Professor Ebner during the Spring '10 term at Vanderbilt.

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5 SANES CH 5.3 only 2009 (1) - Chapter 5, Part 3 Sanes, Reh...

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