Lecture_9_29_first_Phylogeny

Lecture_9_29_first_Phylogeny - Phylogenetic trees:...

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Phylogenetic trees: definitions & key features
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Phylogenetic trees are simplified models of a much more complex set of biological processes B A C
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a b c d e f g h Present Past A phylogeny of taxa a-h
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a b c d e f g h root, root node Tip taxa internal nodes internal branches
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a b c d e f g h “Order” left-to-right has no meaning on a tree
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a b c d e f h g “Order” left-to-right has no meaning on a tree You can “rotate” tree branches around nodes and not change the meaning of the tree.
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a b c d e f h g Both trees make the same point: g and h shared a more recent common ancester with each other than either did with f . Present Past
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a b c d e f h g
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a b c d e h g f
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Key terms: Taxon (plural, taxa) : a set of organisms Clade : a monophyletic group Monophyletic group: all phylogenetic descendants of a single ancestral node on a tree Sister groups : two clades or species that are each other’s closest relatives (the two descendants of a single node) Ingroup: the set of taxa under study Outgroup: one or more taxa that fall phylogenetically outside of the group under study
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups) Most recent common ancestor of h & g
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e h g f Clades (monophyletic groups)
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a b c d e f g h What are examples of non-monophyletic groups?
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Non-monophyletic groups are groups that include some but not all descendants of an ancestor
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This document was uploaded on 03/06/2010.

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Lecture_9_29_first_Phylogeny - Phylogenetic trees:...

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