Be able to diagram early embryonic development from zygote to the gastrula stage including the germ layers (be able to use
the following terms: cleavage, blastula, gastulation, metamorphosis)
Understand the hypothesis for the origin of animal from flagellated protist
What’s the role of
genes in animal diversity
Be able to diagram and understand the advantages of body plans for Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, and Coelomate
Compare and contrast the early development in protostomes and deuterstomes (look at figure 32.9 for some guidance)
There could be another cladogram with several individual species and you may need to develop the synapomorphic
characteristics for them.
Know important characteristics in each phylum including echinoderms and crustaceans (ie Cnidaria – diploblastic,
Define the following: ostia, osculum, spongocoel, radial canals, choanocytes and amoebocytes. Briefly describe asconoid,
syconoid and leuconoid body types of sponges.
What are the characteristics of an endoparasite?
Know the various types of parasites discussed in lecture and lab. Be prepared to discuss how they’re acquired, disease they
cause, where they’re found geographically and within its host (intermediate and final); and any main disease conditions
Ascaris, Necator, Trichinella, Wuchereria, Enterobius, Dracunculus
Taenia, Schistosoma, Clonorchis,
Briefly describe asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid body types of sponges.
What are major characteristics of Molluscs that distinguish it from other phyla? Members of this large and diverse phylum
have impacted humans in many ways. Explain this statement.
What are important features distinguishing features of arthropods?
Briefly explain the difference between complete and incomplete metamorphosis. Include a brief discussion about ecdysis,
ecdysone, juvenile hormone and prothoracotropic hormone and how they’re involved in metamorphosis.
Onychophorans have been regarded by some biologists as a “missing link” between annelids and arthropods. What
evidence supports this hypothesis? What evidence suggests that onychophorans form a distinct phylum?
How are the five classes of echinoderms similar and different from each other?
You will have some taxonomy (inverts and verts) questions down to class (infraclass for mammals) for inverts the written fill-
in portion, for example:
____________The greatest contribution to biology by members in this
is metamerism. All
member possess setae, a ventral and dorsal nerve cord with an anterior "brain," a dorsal
"heart" for moving blood in their closed circulatory system.