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Unformatted text preview: command shells : • Programs that direct the interaction with users. In most cases, when a you type a command, you are interfacing with the shell. • Early shells provided a “text” only interface, but modern computers (particularly personal computers) have graphical user interFaces (GUIs) that allow users to express what they want to do by using a pointing device and selecting among choices displayed on the screen. System software also includes: • Language compilers • Text editors • Utilities for Fle management • Utilities for printing Computer Languages Computer languages are used to develop programs to be executed. The can be described in terms of levels. Machine language: • Lowest-level language • Binary-encoded instructions that are directly executed by the hardware. 9...
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- Summer '09