Lecture _9 - Respiration - Mitochondrial Transport

Lecture _9 - Respiration - Mitochondrial Transport -...

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Unformatted text preview: espiration: Mitochondrial Respiration: Mitochondrial Transport th Campbell Reece, 8 Edition eading Assignment: verall equation gives the impression that it occurs Reading Assignment: Chapters 9 BIOL 203 – Overall equation gives the impression that it occurs in a single step. However, aerobic respiration takes place in about 20 steps, grouped into four stages: Spring 2010 Ralph Feuer 1) Glycolysis 2) Formation of acetyl conenzyme A 3) The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) 4) The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis Energy Flows • Energy flows into an ecosystem s unlight Light energy as sunlight – Leaves as heat ECOSYSTEM hotosynthesis • Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, – Used in cellular respiration Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO 2 + H 2 O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 • Cells use chemical energy stored organic molecules in organic molecules – Regenerate ATP • Powers work ATP powers most cellular work Heat nergy ATP energy Catabolic Pathways Yield Energy By xidizing Organic Fuels Oxidizing Organic Fuels • Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways • Catabolic Pathways and roduction of ATP Production of ATP – The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic ermentation is a partial Fermentation is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O 2 – Aerobic respiration consumes organic molecules and O 2 and yields ATP – Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration p but consumes compounds other than O 2 Cellular Respiration • I ncludes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration – Often used to refer to aerobic respiration 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 FADH 2 2 NADH CYTOSOL Electron shuttles span membrane or MITOCHONDRION • Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis Citric acid cycle 2 Acetyl CoA Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvate consumed as fuel – Helpful to trace cellular respiration with the Maximum per glucose: About 36 or 38 ATP + 2 ATP + 2 ATP + about 32 or 34 ATP sugar glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 → 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat) Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction • The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions – Releases energy stored in organic olecules molecules • This released energy is ultimately used to synthesize ATP becomes oxidized (loses electron) • The Principle of Redox – Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called becomes reduced (gains electron) oxidation-reduction reactions • Redox reactions – In oxidation • A substance loses electrons becomes oxidized – Oxidized – In reduction • A substance gains electrons – educed becomes reduced Reduced – The amount of positive charge is reduced Reducing Agents and Oxidizing Agents • he electron donor The electron donor – Called the reducing agent Reactants Products • The electron receptor – Called the oxidizing agent...
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Lecture _9 - Respiration - Mitochondrial Transport -...

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