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Lecture _10 - Photosynthesis - Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

Lecture _10 - Photosynthesis - Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

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Photosynthesis: Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle Campbell – Reece, 8 th Edition Reading Assignment: Chapter 10 BIOL 203 – Spring 2010 Ralph Feuer
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Overview: The Process That Feeds the B h Biosphere Photosynthesis Process that converts s l i t solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly Photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world
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Autotrophs Autotrophs Sustain themselves without i hi d i d eating anything derived from other organisms The producers of the biosphere Producing organic molecules from CO 2 and other inorganic molecules Almost all plants are photoautotrophs Using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from H O and molecules from H 2 O and CO 2
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Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in Plants Algae Certain protists Some prokaryotes (a) Plants Th i (c) Unicellular protist 10 μm These organisms Feed not only themselves but also 1.5 μm 40 μm (d) Cyanobacteria (e) Purple sulfur bacteria (b) Multicellular alga most of the living world
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Heterotrophs Heterotrophs Obtain their or anic Obtain their organic material from other organisms The consumers of the biosphere Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs For food and O 2
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Photosynthesis Converts Light Energy To The Chemical Energy Of Food Chloroplasts Structurally similar to and likely evolved from Reflected light Light Chloroplast photosynthetic bacteria Structural organization of these cells Absorbed Granum Allows for the chemical reactions of light Transmitted light photosynthesis
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Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants Leaves The major locations of photosynthesis Their green color is from chlorophyll The green pigment within chloroplasts Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll Drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast CO 2 enters and O 2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores St t Stomata
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Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll The interior tissue of the leaf Leaf cross section Vein A typical mesophyll cell H 30 40 hl l t Mesophyll Stomata Has 30–40 chloroplasts The chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids CO 2 O 2 Chloroplast Mesophyll cell C onnected sacs in the chloroplast May be stacked in columns called grana Outer membrane I t b Thylakoid Chloroplasts also contain stroma A dense fluid Intermembrane space 5 μm Inner membrane Thylakoid space Granum Stroma Where carbohydrate formation occurs 1 μm
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Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry Photosynthesis can be summarized as the following equation: 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O O + Light energy O Photosynthesis
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The Splitting of Water Chloroplasts Split H 2 O into hydrogen and oxygen Incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules Reactants: 6 CO 2 12 H 2 O 6
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