Lecture _11 - Cell Signaling

Lecture _11 - Cell Signaling - Cell Signaling Campbell...

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Cell Signaling Campbell – Reece, 8 th Edition Reading Assignment: Chapter 11 BIOL 203 – Spring 2010 Ralph Feuer
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What is Signal Transduction ? Cells must communicate with their extracellular environment Development Function Survival Interaction of cellular receptors with extracellular signals Originating from other cells or from the extracellular matrix The extracellular signals (ligands) bind physically to the cellular receptors Physical interaction usually causes conformational changes to the receptor Subsequently initiation of biochemical processes inside the cell Biochemical events carry the signal all the way to the nucleus Gene activation Originally initiated by the physical interaction of the ligand and the receptor
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Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication Essential for multicellular organisms Biologists Have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation The combined effects of multiple signals determine cell response For example, the dilation of blood vessels Controlled by multiple molecules Microbes are a window on the role of cell signaling in the evolution of life External signals are converted to responses within the cell Neural stem cells differentiation into neurons and infected with eGFP-Coxsackievirus B3
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Evolution of Cell Signaling Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells Use chemical signaling to identify cells of opposite mating type Initiate the mating process A signal transduction pathway A series of steps Convert signals on a cell’s surface into cellular responses Receptor α factor a factor a α α a Exchange of mating factors Yeast cell, mating type a Yeast cell, mating type α Mating New a/ α cell a/ α 1 2 3
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Local and Long-Distance Signaling Cells in a multicellular organism Communicate by chemical messengers Animal and plant cells have cell junctions Directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells Local signaling Animal cells may communicate by direct contact Cell-cell recognition Plasma membranes Gap junctions between animal cells (a) Cell junctions Plasmodesmata between plant cells (b) Cell-cell recognition
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In many other cases, animal cells communicate using local regulators Messenger molecules Travel only short distances Local and Long-Distance Signaling Local signaling Target cell Secretory vesicle Secreting cell Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid (a) Paracrine signaling (b) Synaptic signaling Target cell is stimulated Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter
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In many other cases, animal cells communicate using local regulators Messenger molecules Travel only short distances Long-distance signaling Plants and animals use chemicals Called hormones Local and Long-Distance Signaling Long-distance signaling Endocrine cell Blood vessel Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Target cell (c) Hormonal signaling
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