04 crisis of diplomacy ii

04 crisis of diplomacy ii - The Crisis of Diplomacy - II...

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Unformatted text preview: The Crisis of Diplomacy - II Crisis at the Top, Challenge from Below Split from Without s s s s The Indochina consensus was broken by outside The pressures, i.e., peasant resistance & student protest pressures, Which led to different re-evaluations of costs & Which benefits benefits More & more members of the establishment More decided policy must be changed decided But those closest to power resisted & persisted Split from Within s s Kissinger et al refused Kissinger to listen to the voices of change from within the establishment the Those cut off from the Those White House & any influence sought other ways ways New Institutions for Renewal s So, the establishment went its own way: x x x went to the press (unheard of) created new forums for rebuilding consensus, e.g., created (Foreign Policy magazine) (Foreign created new organizations for maintaining cohesiveness created of Western Alliance, e.g., Trilateral Commission of 3 created by David Rockefeller & Zbigniew created Brzezinski in 1973 Brzezinski 3 member Jimmy Carter to relegitimate Presidency member (new concern with human rights, etc.) (new Return of the Right Wing s s s s Banned from the corridors of power after the McCarthy, Banned China Lobby attacks on “liberal” internationalism China The crisis in Keynesian Era, including that in the The establishment created an opening for a rebirth establishment Right = Old conservatives + New “neo”-conservatives Right wing set about building counter elite institutions and Right new coalitions around old themes new x e.g., free markets, monetarism, “neoliberalism” e.g., x e.g., nationalism, anti-communism vs detente (Committee on the e.g., Present Danger) (Carter’s New Cold War gave official cachet) Present Waiting in the Wings s Right Wing Institutions for Policy x x x x x x Neoconservative journals: Public Interest, Commentary Neoconservative Public Commentary American Enterprise Institute: Neoliberal policy interventions Hoover Institute: Cold War renewal Heritage Foundation: Mandate for Leadership for Reagan Heritage for National Association of Scholars: attacks liberals in education Georgetown Center for Strategic & International Studies 3 Conservative studies & conferences Ronald Reagan & the Counter-Establishment s s s s First Reagan Administration staffed with a few of First old establishment, e.g., George Bush old But, mainly with as many new, Right wing But, counter-establishment people as possible. counter-establishment In economics: supply-side economics, tax cuts, In deregulation, attack on social programs deregulation, In politics: Evil Empire, anti-big-govt rhetoric Hughe’s “Reversals” s s Hughes of establishment Carnegie Endowment Four “reversals” in foreign policy with new Right x x x x from respect for international law to “whatever it takes” from using insternational institutions (UN,IMF) to from nationalist antipathy towards them nationalist from “detente” (economic ties as means to avoid war) from to “roll-back” to from multi- to uni-lateralism & distain for international from cooperation cooperation “Liberal” Establishment’s Revenge s Excluded at last, the old “liberal” establishment Excluded turned its guns on the new administration turned x x x x x for incompetence (e.g., arms control talks, Irangate) for putting ideology before pragmatism (rabid antiCommunism, Contras, etc.) Communism, Arthur Schlesinger’s critique of the substitution of Arthur dogmatic ideology for empirical/pragmatic approaches to foreign policy theory & practice to Public criticism: in journals, Congress, talks Iran-Contra exposure & attack (like Watergate) From Establishment to Professional Elites? s s s s Destler, Gelb & Lake interpret all this as a replacement of Destler, old establishment by a new, professional elite But they extend this new “elite” backward to include But people like Kissinger & Brzezinski who worked within the old establishment old As well as themselves -who participated in the “takeover” As of the executive wing with Carter of So, for them the Right-wing counter-establishment = right So, side of the new professional elite side Continuing Conflicts - I s s Conflicts within First Reagan Adminstration led to Quite different Second Reagan Administration x x x less ideologically extreme more coherent in dealing with Soviet bloc but continued basic policy directions 3 Contras, Grenada, Panama s Bush Administration x Continued 2nd Reagan directions including willingness Continued to intervene militarily (Gulf War) to Continuing Conflicts - II s Bush’s Gulf War led to coalescence of grassroots Bush’s opposition that had developed in 80s around: opposition x x x x opposition to draft opposition to military intervention in Central America opposition to Grenada & Panama invasions opposition to immigration policies changed little from Bush policy directions 3 s Clinton Adminstration x continues NAFTA, support for foreign dictators, etc. --END-- ...
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