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Unformatted text preview: The Crisis of Diplomacy -III
Outflanked from Below Challenges to Elite Power
s s s s reading: M.Shuman. “Dateline Mainstreet” reading: C. Thorup: “Cross-border Coalitions” reading: J.Arguilla & D.Ronfeldt: ”Cyberwar” reading: H. Cleaver, "The Zapatistas and the reading: Electronic Fabric of Struggle" Electronic Grassroots Opposition
s Elite has often had to have “internal diplomacy” Elite for those excluded from decision making who objected objected
x e.g., WWII (Roosevelt & Churchill, Donovan & Stephenson) s Grassroots = individual or informal groups of Grassroots individuals individuals
x x x x x can coalesce into more or less formal organizations are often called NGOs can become political parties, electoral or not can influence govt at all levels Shuman ignores dynamics of such developments Local Foreign Policies
s Shuman analyses local or municipal govts Shuman
x x x Constitution reserves foreign policy for federal level Yet, there are thousands of local initiatives Interpretation of the law is loose
3 3 “consciousness raising” tolerated unilateral actions challenged thru: 1. supremacy clause, 2. unilateral comerce clause, x Shuman’s 4 guidelines: 1. fed support for Shuman’s consciousness raising, 2. tolerate all but clearly dangerous actions, 3. work with locals, 4. tighten laws in dangerous areas in Cross-Border Networks
s s s s Thorup (now w/USAID) dealt with free trade & Thorup immmigration issues immmigration “domestic interest groups”, NGOs “cross-border networks” --some analysis of genesis, cross-border meetings, sharing information, etc. meetings, Focus: impact on formal diplomacy, esp. US-Mex
x x x disruption of elite plans self-organization autonomous of state mainly lobbying Congress against executive wing s Elite Response: co-opt, divide & conquer Views from the Bottom
s reading: H.Fredericks: “Global Civil Society”
x x Fredericks was director of the PeaceNet network of Fredericks social activist groups, “conferences” social @igc.apc.org s reading: H.Cleaver: “Electronic Fabric of Struggle”, "The reading:
Zapatista Effect: the Internet and the Rise of an Alternative Political Fabric Political s reading:
x x creator/moderator of Chiapas95 part of pro-Zapatista network supporting struggle for democracy in part Mexico & anti-neoliberal struggles Mexico Civil Society - I
s s s s s increasingly used concept reborn in E.Europe during struggle against reborn communist state communist used to theorize social spaces and activities not used colonized by the state colonized can be traced back to Greeks most today refer to John Locke, most
x x but for him “civil society” = society & included state participant in civil society was “citizen” Civil Society - II
s “Civil society” separated Civil from the state in late 18th, early 19th Centuries early
x perceived need to balance perceived civil society to limit state civil s for Hegel civil society was for self crippling, needed state to overcome limitations, includes market includes Civil Society - III
s for Marx civil society for was capitalist society, state was outgrowth of class rule class
x so both civil society & state so were rife with class contradictions contradictions Global Civil Society
s s s s s s Howard Fredericks speaks of “Global” civil Howard society (GCS), neither market nor government society His “civil society” is embodied in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Growth of GCS facilitated by development of Growth communications, decentralized technology communications, Examples: China, Gulf War, etc. Conclusion: communication is human right HMC: objection: NGOs substituted for grassroots NGOs, Big & Small
s s s s Term “NGO” regroups revolutionary groups, Term human rights groups, elite policy groups outside government, e.g., AZ, AI, Ford Foundation government, Grassroots creativity in cyberspace, elaboration of Grassroots computer communications as element of other struggles struggles E.g., AZ uses internet lists, webpages to support E.g., the Zapatistas & oppose neoliberalism the E.g., AI uses same to oppose human rights abuses Zapatistas & Electronic Fabric of Struggle - I
s s s s Two experiences of horizontal organizing: x Mayan community networks x Cyberspacial networks Linked through both individuals and various groups Within network, there is tension between traditional forms Within of organization and new/old network forms of State responses: x in Chiapas: attempted isolation, lies, violence x in cyberspace: theory & action Netwars?
s s s s s s s RAND Corp analysis (see Domhoff) cyberwar & netwar (1st shows why “war”) orientation toward dev. of state policies of control “Netwar” actors: states, narcos, terrorists & “advocacy Netwar” movements” (my interest) movements” Advocacy movements increasingly organized into crossborder networks, identify w/civil society Networks vs institutions, horizontal linkages vs vertical Networks hierarchies hierarchies State must develop networks to counter networks The Pentagon Rewires The itself for itself for ‘Information Warfare’ BUT... WHO controls the wires? The Master-Mind !! The Air Force Vision Air of the “CyberWarrior” Zaps & Electronic Fabric of Struggle - II
s Response in Cyberspace
x theoretical as with Arguille & Ronfeldt
3 attempt to understand & find countermeasures repression (raids, new laws, censorship) x practical actions
3 x “Low intensity warfare” on cyberfrontier s s This within wider general program of neoliberal This austerity and repression of workers & peasants austerity Current status: grassroots have initiative --END?-- ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course ECO 357L taught by Professor Cleaver during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '10