Barron v. Mayor of Baltimore, 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 243 (1833) established a precedent on
whether the United States Bill of Rights could be applied to state governments.
The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873) was the first United States Supreme Court
interpretation of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is
viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, reading the Fourteenth Amendment as
protecting the "privileges or immunities" conferred by virtue of the federal United States
citizenship to all individuals of all states within it, but not those privileges or immunities
incident to citizenship of a state.
Incorporation (of the Bill of Rights) is the American legal doctrine by which portions of
the Bill of Rights are applied to the states through the Due Process Clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment, although some have suggested that the Privileges or Immunities
Clause would be a more appropriate textual basis.
Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925), was a historically important case argued
before the United States Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that the Fourteenth
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution had extended the reach of certain provisions of the
First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom
of the press—to the governments of the individual states
Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931), was a United States Supreme Court decision
that recognized the freedom of the press by roundly rejecting prior restraints on
publication, a principle that was applied to free speech generally in subsequent
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961), was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which
the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the
Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may
not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S. 784 (1969), is a United States Supreme Court decision
concerning double jeopardy. Benton ruled that the Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth
Amendment applies to the states. In doing so, Benton expressly overruled Palko v.
Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937).
Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963), is a landmark case in United States Supreme
Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are
required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal
cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys.
Hague v. Committee for Industrial Organization, 307 U.S. 496 (1939), is a case decided
by the United States Supreme Court. The case involved Jersey City, New Jersey Mayor
Frank "Boss" Hague who had in 1937 used a city ordinance to prevent labor meetings in