ch02-Atomic Structure

ch02-Atomic Structure - Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and...

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Chapter 2 - 1 Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding (updated) These notes have been prepared by Jorge Seminario from the textbook material
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Chapter 2 - 2 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding?
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Chapter 2- Basic idea … properties of materials are a consequence of Identity of the atoms Spatial arrangement of the atoms Interactions between the atoms Thus, we need to talk about atomic structure/bonding!
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Chapter 2- Atomic structure Atomic number Number of electrons/electronic configuration e.g. you might expect electronic properties to depend on the number of electrons an atom has (i.e. open v closed shells) Type of bonding (ionic versus covalent) Changes as you move around the periodic table!
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Chapter 2 - 5 Atomic Structure 2.2 Fundamental Concepts atom – electrons 9.094 x 10 -31 kg protons 1.6726 x 10 -27 kg neutrons 1.6749 x 10 -27 kg atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom A = atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of AN molecules, atoms, etc. and AN = 6.022 x 10 23 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc.
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Chapter 2- Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons m e = 0.00091094x 10 -27 = 9.1094x 10 -31 kg = 0.511 MeV m p = 1.6726 x 10 -27 kg = 938.272 MeV m n = 1.6749 x 10 -27 kg = 939.566 MeV = m p + 1.293 MeV Charge of a proton and electron is the same: 1.6022 x 10 -19 C However p are +’ve and e are –’ve Atomic number ( Z ) describes the number of protons in the nucleus Atomic mass ( A ) of an element is approximately equal to the number of neutrons and protons the element has Remember elements have isotopes – elements can have different numbers of neutrons (e.g. 12 C, 13 C, 14 C) Atomic weight is the weighted average of the element based on the relative amounts of its isotopes (e.g. 1 mol/carbon = 12.0107 g/mol, NOT 12 g/mol!) Basic concepts
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Chapter 2- 2.2 Fundamental Concepts Atoms consist of a small nucleus containing Protons - 1.60 x 10 -19 C - 1.67 x 10 -27 kg Neutrons - neutral - 1.67 x 10 -27 kg Electrons (which circle the nucleus) - 1.60 x 10 -19 C - 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
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Chapter 2- 2.2 Fundamental Concepts Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons in the nucleus Electrically neutral or complete atom: - Z= # electons Atomic Mass (A) Sum of the masses of protons and neutrons Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different atomic masses due to varying number of protons
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Chapter 2- 2.2 Fundamental Concept Atomic Weight Weighted average of the atomic masses of an atom's naturally occurring isotopes Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Measure of atomic mass 1/12 the mass of C 12 atom Mole Quantity of a substance corresponding to 6.022X10 23 atoms or molecules 1 amu/ atom (or molecule) = 1g/mol
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Chapter 2- How many grams are there in one amu of a material?
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ch02-Atomic Structure - Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and...

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