Chapter 2 Lecture Outline

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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Biology 100 Vandan Desai P a g e | 1 Chapter 2: The Atoms and Molecules of Ancient Earth (Lecture Outline) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Basics of Chemical Evolution & General Vocabulary Chemical evolution: proposition that early in Earth’s history, simple chemical compounds in the atmosphere and ocean combined to form large, more complex substances i. Early atmosphere and ocean composed of inorganic atoms, simple molecules ii. Chemical reactions produced complex, inorganic compounds – basis for life Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass Protons and neutrons in nucleus, electrons in surrounding orbitals Elements – substances that cannot be broken down into other substances by reactions Molecule – substance composed of two or more atoms (H 2 , CO 2 ) Compound – substance made up of two or more elements (CO 2 ) Isotopes of an element – differ in the number of neutrons i. In nature, elements are found in a mixture of isotopes Mass Number – sum of protons and neutrons in an atom Atomic mass unit (amu) (or Dalton) – unit of mass for subatomic particles i. Masses of protons and neutrons – identical; rounded to 1 amu ii. Masses of electrons – substantially small compared to others; rounded to 0 amu II. The Building Blocks of Chemical Evolution A. Four types of atoms ( hydrogen , carbon , oxygen , and nitrogen ) make up 96% of all matter found in organisms today B. Electrons move around atomic nuclei in specific regions called orbitals . i.
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Chapter 2 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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