Chapter 5 Lecture Outline

Chapter 5 Lecture Outline - hexose iv Vary in the...

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Biology 100 Vandan Desai A P a g e | 1 Chapter 5: An Introduction to Carbohydrates (Lecture Outline) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Sugars as Monomers A. Sugars are fundamental to life: i. Provide chemical energy in cells ii. Furnish some of the molecular building blocks required for the synthesis of larger, more complex compounds B. Monosaccharide: simple sugar; building block ( monomer ) for complex carbohydrates i. Carbonyl group can be found either… At the end of the molecule, forming an aldehyde sugar (an aldose ) Within the carbon chain, forming a ketone sugar (a ketose ) ii. Presence of carbonyl group along with multiple hydroxyl groups gives sugars an array of functional groups iii. Composed of anywhere from 3 to 7 carbons linked together Carbons are number consecutively , starting with the end nearest the carbonyl group 3 carbon sugar ( trioses ); 5 carbon sugar ( pentose ); 6 carbon sugar
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Unformatted text preview: ( hexose ) iv. Vary in the configuration (spatial arrangement) of hydroxyl function groups v. Serve as fuel – glucose used as a source of chemical energy in production of ATP vi. Sugars do not usually exist in the form of linear chains: • In aqueous solution they tend to form ring structures • Carbon that is numbered 1 in the linear chain forms a bond with an oxygen atom and with a hydroxyl group that can be oriented in 2 ways II. The Structure of Polysaccharides A. Polysaccharides are polymers that form when monosaccharides are linked together B. Simplest polysaccharides consist of two sugars and are known as disaccharides C. Simple sugar polymerize when a condensation reaction occurs between two hydroxyl groups, resulting in a covalent bond called a glycosidic linkage i. The location and geometry of glycosidic linkages can vary widely among polysaccharides D. Function: energy storage (glycogen, starch) & structural support (cellulose, chitin)...
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