Chapter 7 Lecture Outline

Chapter 7 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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Biology 100 Vandan Desai P a g e | 1 Chapter 7: Inside the Cell (Lecture Outline) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. What’s Inside the Cell? A. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound compartment called a nucleus , while prokaryotic cells do not B. In terms of morphology (form) , species fall into 2 broad categories: prokaryotes and eukaryotes C. In terms of phylogeny (evolutionary history) , species fall into 3 broad categories: Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya i. Members of Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic ii. Members of Eukarya (algae, fungi, plants, and animals) are eukaryotic D. Prokaryotic Cells i. Cell/plasma membrane: consists of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that either span the bilayer or attack to one side ii. Cytoplasm: contents of a cell inside the membrane a. B/c it contains high concentration of solutes, in most habitats it is hypertonic relative to the surrounding environment b. Water enters cell through osmosis and causes cell’s volume to expand iii. Cell wall: present in virtually all bacteria and archaea; tough, fibrous layer that surrounds the cell membrane; resists increasing pressure a. Protects the organism and gives it shape and rigidity b. Bacteria have an additional protective layer consisting of lipids w/ polysaccharides attached (glycolipids ) iv. Prokaryotic chromosome: consists of a large DNA molecule associated with small number of proteins a. In most species – single circular chromosome b. Contains instructions for making proteins and other molecules needed c. Found in localized area of the cell called the nucleoid d. Genetic material not separated by a membrane v. Plasmids: small, circular, supercoiled DNA molecules a. Contain genes but independent of the main chromosome b. under normal conditions but to help cell adapt to unusual circumstances vi. Ribosomes: manufacture proteins a. Complex structures with and many proteins b. Organized into 2 major structural elements – large and small subunits vii. Flagella: power movement; located on the surface of some bacterial cells viii. Lack nucleus but some do contain membrane bound organelles inside ix. Organelle: membrane-bound compartment in the cytoplasm that contains enzymes specialized for a particular function
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course BIOL 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '07 term at UMBC.

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Chapter 7 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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