Chapter 16 Lecture Outline

Chapter 16 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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Biology 100 Vandan Desai Chapter 16: Transcription and Translation (Lecture Outline) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Proteins Are the Stuff of Life A. Proteins control most cell processes like chemical reactions and also give cells their stricture and shape i. Cell function is dependent on protein function ii. If one or more proteins do not work correctly, the cell bay become sick and die B. Proteins are synthesized in a two-step process ( the central dogma ) i. Transcription of genes into messenger R&As (mR&As) 1. Language of nucleic acid 2. U instead of T in mRNA strand 3. Occurs in the nucleus (eukaryotes) 4. Key Players = D&A, mR&A, R&A Polymerase (II) ii. Translation of mR&As into proteins 1. Change in cellular language from nucleotide (mRNA) to protein (sequence of amino acids) 2. Occurs in ribosomes (in cytoplasm ) 3. acts as an interpreter 4. Key Players = mR&A, tR&A, rR&A C. Eukaryotes have three different present in every cell i. RNA Polymerase (I) transcribes genes that code for ii. RNA Polymerase (II) transcribes genes that code for proteins ; thus it synthesizes iii. RNA Polymerase (III) transcribes genes that code for tR&As and other small II. Transcription in Eukaryotes A. Consists of 3 Stages: i. Initiation attachment of RNA Polymerase (II) to “ promoter ” regions of DNA; the promoter regions signal where transcription should begin ii. Elongation building mRNA complementary to DNA iii. Termination release of RNA Polymerase (II) and mRNA B. Initiation i. Eukaryotes have several basal transcriptional factors 1. Required to initiate transcription 2. Initiate transcription by matching the enzyme with the appropriate promoter region in DNA ii. Eukaryotic promoters 1. TATA box , sequence of A & T, is located on DNA 2. 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription
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Chapter 16 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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