Chapter 45 Lecture Outline

Chapter 45 Lecture Outline - Biology 100 Vandan Desai...

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Biology 100 Vandan Desai Chapter 45: The glyph1197ervous System (Lecture Outline) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Functions of the glyph1197ervous System A. Sense and respond to changing conditions B. Awareness of sights , sounds , hunger , fear , and emotion C. Active throughout your life , without rest, until your death II. glyph1197euron A. An excitable cell B. Basic unit of communication in nearly all animal nervous system C. Astounding uniformity —neurons function same way in most species III. glyph1197eurons Transmit Information Through Electrical Impulses A. Sensory receptors receive information about external environment and body interior i. Sensory cells on the periphery of the body transmit information about the external environment ii. Sensory cells inside the body monitor conditions important in homeostasis B. The pathway of information flow in the nervous system in vertebrates: i. Sensory neurons send information to central nervous system (CNS) ( afferent pathway ) 1. The sensory receptor itself is often a sensory neuron 2. The Cglyph817S consists of the brain and spinal cord ii. The integrators ( Cglyph817S ) integrate info from many sensory neurons iii. The Cglyph817S stimulates a motor neuron , which sends signals to effector cells in glands and muscles ( efferent pathway ) iv. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of all components of the nervous system that are outside the CNS v. A reflex bypasses the brain and travels directly to an effector 1. Reflex makes it possible to have rapid automatic responses 2. A connection is made b/w a sensory neuron and a motor neuron in the spinal cord (so, CNS involved w/o the brain) IV. The Anatomy of a glyph1197euron A. Dendrites —fibers, often heavily branched, receive incoming signals B. Cell body command center of neuron; contains the nucleus C. Axons —fibers extending from cell body; contains axon hillock —regions from which action potential is fired i. Input zone —consists of cell body and dendrites ii. Conducting zone —consists of the axon iii. Output zone —consists of axon endings D. Synapse —tiny spaces between adjoining nerve cells ; usually one-way valve; site of signal conversion ( electrical impulse converted to chemical signal ) i. Pre-synaptic cell releases neurotransmitter ii. Post-synaptic cell receives neurotransmitter
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Biology 100 Vandan Desai V. The glyph1197euron Membrane A. Thin membrane with similar composition to plasma membrane B. Surrounds the entire neuron C. Lipid bilayer i. Impermeable to ions , polar molecules ii. Results in disequilibrium in charge across membrane D. Embedded proteins allow passage of some materials i. Transport proteins 1. Channel proteins a. Open ( leak ) channels b. Gated channels i. Ligand-gated (open w/ attachment of particular chemical— neurotransmitter ) ii. Voltage-gated (open in presence of particular voltage ) 2. Carrier proteins —change conformation ii. Passive transport 1. Includes simple and facilitated diffusion 2. glyph817o energy required 3. Ions move down their chemical/concentration gradient iii. Active transport ( pumps ) 1. Energy required 2. Ions move against their
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