Anatomy and Physiology I Notes

Anatomy and Physiology I Notes - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Human...

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BIOL 251—Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapter 1—The Human Body: An Orientation I. An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology (pp. 2–3) A. Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other, and physiology is the study of the function of body parts (p. 2). B. Topics of Anatomy (p. 2) 1. Gross (macroscopic) anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye. a. Regional anatomy is the study of all body structures in a given body region. b. Systemic anatomy is the study of all structures in a body system. c. Surface anatomy is the study of internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin. 2. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. a. Cytology is the study of individual cells. b. Histology is the study of tissues. 3. Developmental anatomy is the study of the change in body structures over the course of a lifetime; embryology focuses on development that occurs before birth. 4. Specialized Branches of Anatomy a. Pathological anatomy is the study of structural changes associated with disease. b. Radiographic anatomy is the study of internal structures using specialized visualization techniques. c. Molecular biology is the study of biological molecules. 5. Essential tools for studying anatomy are the mastery of medical terminology and the development of keen observational skills. C. Topics of Physiology (pp. 2–3) 1. Physiology has several topics, most of which consider the function of specific organ systems. 2. Physiology often focuses on cellular and molecular events. D. Complementarity of Structure and Function (p. 3) 1. The principle of complementarity of structure and function states that function is dependent on structure, and that the form of a structure relates to its function. II. Levels of Structural Organization (p. 3; Figs. 1.1, 1.3) A. The chemical level is the simplest level of organization (Fig. 1.1). 1. Atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules. 2. Molecules combine in specific ways to form organelles, which are the basic unit of living cells. B. The cellular level is the smallest unit of life, and varies widely in size and shape according to the cells’ function. C. The tissue level is groups of cells having a common function.
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course BIOL 251 taught by Professor Fleischmann during the Fall '08 term at UMBC.

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Anatomy and Physiology I Notes - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Human...

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