Chapter 2 Outline

Chapter 2 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Human Anatomy and...

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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapter 2 —Chemistry Comes Alive PART 1: BASIC CHEMISTRY I. Definition of Concepts: Matter and Energy (pp. 24–25) A. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass (p. 24). 1. Mass is equal to the amount of matter in the object. 2. Mass remains constant regardless of gravity. B. States of Matter (p. 24) 1. Matter exists in one of three states: solid, liquid, or gas. C. Energy (pp. 24–25) 1. Energy is the capacity to do work, and it exists in two forms. a. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. b. Potential energy is stored energy. 2. Forms of Energy a. Chemical energy is energy stored in chemical bonds. b. Electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles. c. Mechanical energy is energy directly involved with moving matter. d. Radiant energy is energy that travels in waves. 3. Energy is easily converted from one form to another. II. Composition of Matter: Atoms and Elements (pp. 25–28; Figs. 2.1–2.3; Table 2.1) A. Basic Terms (p. 25; Table 2.1) 1. Elements are unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means. 2. Four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up roughly 96% of body weight. 3. Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that retain the characteristics of that element. 4. Elements are designated by a one- or two-letter abbreviation called the atomic symbol. B. Atomic Structure (pp. 25–27; Figs. 2.1–2.2) 1. Each atom has a central nucleus with tightly packed protons and neutrons. a. Protons have a positive charge and weigh 1 atomic mass unit (amu). b. Neutrons do not have a charge and weigh 1amu. 2. Electrons are found moving around the nucleus, have a negative charge, and are weightless (0 amu). 3. Atoms are electrically neutral and the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. 4. The planetary model is a simplified, two-dimensional model of atomic structure. 5. The orbital model is a more accurate three-dimensional model talking about orbital regions instead of set orbital patterns.
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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 C. Identifying Elements (pp. 27–28; Fig. 2.3) 1. Elements are identified based on their number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 2. The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons of an element. a. Because the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, the atomic number indirectly tells us the number of electrons. 3. The mass number of an element is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. a. The electron is weightless, and is ignored in calculating the mass number. 4. Isotopes are structural variations of an atom that have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course BIOL 251 taught by Professor Fleischmann during the Fall '08 term at UMBC.

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Chapter 2 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Human Anatomy and...

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