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Unformatted text preview: Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy & Physiology I 1 Chapter 6Bones and Skeletal Tissues I. Skeletal Cartilages (p. 173; Fig. 6.1) A. Basic Structure, Types, and Locations (p. 173; Fig. 6.1) 1. Skeletal cartilages are made from cartilage, surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue called the perichondrium. 2. Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant skeletal cartilage, and includes the articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilages. 3. Elastic cartilages are more flexible than hyaline, and are located only in the external ear and the epiglottis of the larynx. 4. Fibrocartilage is located in areas that must withstand a great deal of pressure or stretch, such as the cartilages of the knee and the intervertebral discs. B. Growth of Cartilage (p. 173) 1. Appositional growth results in outward expansion due to the production of cartilage matrix on the outside of the tissue. 2. Interstitial growth results in expansion from within the cartilage matrix due to division of lacunae-bound chondrocytes and secretion of matrix. II. Classification of Bones (pp. 173175; Figs. 6.16.2) A. There are two main divisions of the bones of the skeleton: the axial skeleton, consisting of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage; and the appendicular skeleton, consisting of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton (pp. 173174; Fig. 6.1). B. Shape (pp. 174175; Fig. 6.2) 1. Long bones are longer than they are wide, have a definite shaft and two ends, and consist of all limb bones except patellas, carpals, and tarsals. 2. Short bones are somewhat cube shaped and include the carpals and tarsals. 3. Flat bones are thin, flattened, often curved bones that include most skull bones, the sternum, scapulae, and ribs. 4. Irregular bones have complicated shapes that do not fit in any other class, such as the vertebrae and coxae. III. Functions of Bones (pp. 175176) A. Bones support the body and cradle the soft organs, protect vital organs, allow movement, store minerals such as calcium and phosphate, and house hematopoietic tissue in specific marrow cavities (pp. 175176). IV. Bone Structure (pp. 176182; Figs. 6.36.7; Table 6.1) A. Gross Anatomy (pp. 176178; Figs. 6.3, 6.5; Table 6.1) 1. Bone markings are projections, depressions, and openings found on the surface of bones that function as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, and as openings for the passage of blood vessels and nerves. surfaces, and as openings for the passage of blood vessels and nerves....
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