Chapter 8 Outline

Chapter 8 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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1 Chapter 8—Joints I. Classification of Joints (pp. 248–249; Figs. 8-1–8.3; Table 8.1) A. Structural classification focuses on the material binding the bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present (p. 249; Table 8.1). 1. In fibrous joints the bones are joined together by fibrous tissue and lack a joint cavity. 2. In cartilaginous joints the bones are joined together by cartilage and they lack a joint cavity. 3. In synovial joints, the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity. B. Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint (p. 249). 1. Synarthroses are immovable joints. 2. Amphiarthroses are slightly movable joints. 3. Diarthroses are freely movable joints. II. Fibrous Joints (pp. 249–250; Fig. 8.1; Tables 8.1–8.2) A. Sutures occur between bones of the skull and use very short connective tissue fibers to hold the bones together (p. 249; Fig. 8.1). B. In syndesmoses, the bones are connected by a ligament, which is a cord or band of fibrous tissue (pp. 249–250; Fig. 8.1). C. A gomphosis is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint (p. 250; Fig. 8.1). III.Cartilaginous Joints (pp. 250–251; Fig. 8.2; Tables 8.1–8.2) A. Synchondroses involve a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting the bones, such as the epiphyseal plate (pp. 250–251; Fig. 8.2). B. In symphyses, such as the pubic symphysis, the articular surfaces are covered with articular cartilage that is then fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartilage (p. 251; Fig. 8.2). IV. Synovial Joints (pp. 251–269; Figs. 8.3–8.8, 8.10–8.13; Tables 8.1–8.2) A. The general structure of a synovial joint contains five distinguishing features (pp. 251–252; Fig. 8.3). 1. Articular cartilage covers the ends of the articulating bones. 2. The joint (synovial) cavity is a space that is filled with synovial fluid. 3. The two-layered articular capsule encloses the joint cavity. 4. Synovial fluid is a viscous, slippery fluid that fills all free space within the joint cavity. 5. Reinforcing ligaments cross synovial joints to strengthen the joint.
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Chapter 8 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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