Chapter 10 Outline

Chapter 10 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 1 Chapter 10—The Muscular System I. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body (p. 321) A. Muscles only pull; they are not capable of pushing (p. 321). B. The muscle that provides the major force for the specific movement is called the prime mover or the agonist (p. 321). C. Muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement are called the antagonists (p. 321). D. Synergists help the prime movers by adding extra force to the same movement, or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements (p. 321). II. Naming Skeletal Muscles (pp. 321–322) A. Some muscle names indicate the bone or body region with which the muscle is associated (p. 321). B. Some muscles are named for their shape (p. 321). C. Terms such as maximus, minimus, longus, and brevis are often used in muscle names to indicate relative size of the muscle (p. 321). D. The names of some muscles indicate the direction in which their fibers run in relation to an imaginary line of the body, such as the midline (p. 321). E. The number of origins a muscle has may be indicated by the word biceps, triceps, or quadriceps in its name (p. 321). F. Some muscles are named according to the location of their origin and insertion (pp. 321–322). G. A muscle may be named for its action by using a word such as flexor or extensor in its name (p. 322). III. Muscle Mechanics: Importance of Fascicle Arrangement and Leverage (pp. 322– 324; Figs. 10.1–10.3) A. In skeletal muscles the common arrangement of the fascicles varies, resulting in muscles with different shapes and functional capabilities (pp. 322–323; Fig. 10.1). 1. The fascicular pattern is circular when the fascicles are arranged in concentric rings. 2. A convergent muscle has a broad origin and its fascicles converge toward a single tendon of insertion. 3. In a parallel arrangement, the long axis of the fascicles runs parallel to the long axis of the muscle. 4. A spindle-shaped parallel arrangement of fascicles is sometimes classified as a fusiform muscle. 5. In a pennate pattern of arrangement the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle.
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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 2 B. The operation of most skeletal muscles involves the use of leverage and lever systems, partnerships between the muscular and skeletal systems (pp. 323–324; Figs. 10.2, 10.3).
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Chapter 10 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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