Chapter 12 Outline

Chapter 12 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy...

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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 1 Chapter 12—The Central Nervous System I. The Brain (pp. 430–453; Figs. 12.1–12.4; Table 12.1) A. Embryonic Development (pp. 430–431; Figs. 12.1–12.4) 1. At three weeks’ gestation, the ectoderm forms the neural plate, which invaginates, forming the neural groove, flanked on either side by neural folds. 2. By the fourth week of pregnancy, the neural groove fuses, giving rise to the neural tube, which rapidly differentiates into the CNS. 3. The neural tube develops constrictions that divide the three primary brain vesicles: the prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain), and rhombencephalon (hindbrain). B. Regions and Organization (p. 431) 1. The basic pattern of the CNS consists of a central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core, external to which is white matter. 2. In the brain, the cerebrum and cerebellum have an outer gray matter layer, which is reduced to scattered gray matter nuclei in the spinal cord. C. Ventricles (pp. 431–433; Fig. 12.5) 1. The ventricles of the brain are continuous with one another, and with the central canal of the spinal cord. They are lined with ependymal cells, and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. a. The paired lateral ventricles lie deep within each cerebral hemisphere, and are separated by the septum pellucidum. b. The third ventricle lies within the diencephalon, and communicates with the lateral ventricles via two interventricular foramina. c. The fourth ventricle lies in the hindbrain and communicates with the third ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct. D. Cerebral Hemispheres (pp. 433–441; Figs. 12.6–12.11; Table 12.1) 1. The cerebral hemispheres form the superior part of the brain, and are characterized by ridges and grooves called gyri and sulci. 2. The cerebral hemispheres are separated along the midline by the longitudinal fissure, and are separated from the cerebellum along the transverse cerebral fissure. 3. The five lobes of the brain separated by specific sulci are: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insular. 4. The cerebral cortex is the location of the conscious mind, allowing us to communicate, remember, and understand. 5. The cerebral cortex has several motor areas located in the frontal lobes, which control voluntary movement. a. The primary motor cortex allows conscious control of skilled voluntary movement of skeletal muscles. b. The premotor cortex is the region controlling learned motor skills.
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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 2 c. Broca’s area is a motor speech area that controls muscles involved in speech production. d. The frontal eye field controls eye movement. 6. There are several sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that occur in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. a. The primary somatosensory cortex allows spatial discrimination and the ability
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Chapter 12 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy...

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