Chapter 13 Outline

Chapter 13 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy...

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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 1 Chapter 13—The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity PART 1: SENSORY RECEPTORS AND SENSATION I. Sensory Receptors (pp. 485–488; Fig. 13.1; Table 13.1) A. Sensory receptors are specialized to respond to changes in their environment called stimuli (p. 485; Fig. 13.1). B. Receptors may be classified according to the type of stimulus, and include mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors (p. 485). C. Receptors may be classified according to their location, or location of stimulus, and include exteroceptors, interoceptors, and proprioceptors (p. 486). D. Receptors may be classified according to structural complexity, and may be simple or complex (p. 486). E. Simple receptors are general senses, and may be unencapsulated or encapsulated dendritic endings (pp. 486–488; Table 13.1). 1. Unencapsulated dendritic endings are free, or naked, nerve endings, and detect temperature, pain, itch, or light touch. 2. Encapsulated dendritic endings consist of a dendrite enclosed in a connective tissue capsule and detect discriminatory touch, initial, continuous, and deep pressure, and stretch of muscles, tendons, and joint capsules. II. Sensory Integration: From Sensation to Perception (pp. 488–491; Fig. 13.2) A. The somatosensory system, the part of the sensory system serving the body wall and limbs, involves the receptor level, the circuit level, and the perceptual level (pp. 488– 491; Fig. 13.2). 1. Processing at the receptor level involves a stimulus that must excite a receptor in order for sensation to occur. 2. Processing at the circuit level is involved with delivery of impulses to the appropriate region of the cerebral cortex for stimulus localization and perception.
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