Chapter 14 Outline

Chapter 14 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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Vandan Desai BIOL 251—Anatomy & Physiology I 1 Chapter 14—The Autonomic Nervous System I. Introduction (pp. 526–528, Figs. 14.1–14.2) A. Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems (pp. 526–527; Fig. 14.2) 1. The somatic nervous system stimulates skeletal muscles, while the ANS innervates cardiac and smooth muscle and glands. 2. In the somatic nervous system, the cell bodies of the neurons are in the spinal cord and their axons extend to the skeletal muscles they innervate. The ANS consists of a two-neuron chain. 3. The neurotransmitter released by the somatic motor neurons is acetylcholine, which always has an excitatory effect; the neurotransmitters released by the ANS are epinephrine and acetylcholine, and both may have either an excitatory or an inhibitory effect. 4. There is overlap between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, and most body responses to changing internal and external stimuli involve both skeletal muscle activity and visceral organ responses. B. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (pp. 527–528; Fig. 14.1) 1. The parasympathetic division keeps body energy use as low as possible while directing digestion and elimination activities. 2. The sympathetic division prepares the body to respond to an emergency or threatening situation (or vigorous exercise). II. ANS Anatomy (pp. 528–535; Figs. 14.3–14.8; Table 14.1) A. Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Division (pp. 529–530; Figs. 14.3–14.4; Table 14.1) 1. The preganglionic axons extend from the CNS nearly all the way to the structures to be innervated, where they synapse with ganglionic neurons in the terminal
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Chapter 14 Outline - Vandan Desai BIOL 251Anatomy &...

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