CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES

CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES - CHAPTER 1 I. History of...

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1 CHAPTER 1 I. History of Psychoactive Drugs A. Definition of a psychoactive drug is any substance that directly alters the normal functioning of the central nervous system. B. More than 4,000 plants contain psychoactive substances II. Ancient Civilizations A. Alcohol can be traced to the earliest civilizations. Ancient Egypt: reward for pyramid workers B. Opium use is recorded as far back as 6000 years ago 1. Medicinally as a pain killer and to control diarrhea 2. Also employed as a euphoriant and as a sedative C. Cannabis (marijuana) was used in ancient China, India, and throughout Eastern Europe and the Middle East as a medicine and euphoriant. D. Psychedelic mushrooms were used in India, Siberia, and Central America in religious ceremonies. III. Middle Ages A. Psychedelics plants of the nightshade family such as henbane, belladonna, and the mandrake root were used as poisons, pain-killers, and hallucinogens (often by witches and medicine men). B. Psychedelic mold (ergot), which grows on rye and wheat plants, caused outbreaks of mass hallucination when people ate bread made from contaminated grain. C. Islamic substitutes for alcohol, which was forbidden by Koran, included opium, coffee, and tobacco and khat, a plant stimulant. D. Alcohol, especially wine, was produced in medieval monasteries, often for sacraments. The process of distillation was also developed. E. Coca leaf (cocaine) chewing was reserved for the upper classes of the Incan empire in South America.
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2 F. Hallucinogenic mushrooms (containing psilocybin), peyote cactus (containing mescaline) and ololiuqui
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CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES - CHAPTER 1 I. History of...

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