10.genomes - Genomes summary 1. >930 bacterial...

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Unformatted text preview: Genomes summary 1. >930 bacterial genomes sequenced. 2. Circular. Genes densely packed. 3. 2-10 Mbases, 470 - 7,000 genes 4. Genomes of >200 eukaryotes (45 higher) sequenced. 5. Linear chromosomes 6. On average, ~ 50% of gene functions known. 7. Human genome: <40,000 genes code for >120,000 proteins. Large gene families (e.g. 500 protein kinases) 98% of human DNA is noncoding. ~ 3% of human DNA = simple repeats (satellites, minisatellites, microsatellites) ~ 50% of DNA = mobile elements (DNA transposons, retrotransposons (LTR and nonLTR) & pseudogenes) Bacterial genome sizes Small and large Predicted genes in bacterial species Mycoplasma genitalium 470 Mycoplasma mycoides 985 E. coli 4,288 B. anthracis 5,508 P. aeruginosa 5,570 Mycobacterium leprae 1,604 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3,995 + ~ 930 sequenced microbial genomes (http:/ / www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ sutils/ genom_table.cgi ) Genome sizes Gene density down in mammals Bacterial genomes are circular and densely packed with genes - 1 E. coli. Genes (circles 1 & 2). B. anthracis. Genes (circles 1 & 2). Bacterial genomes are circular and densely packed with genes - 2 M. tuberculosis (4.41 MB) . Genes (circles 1 & 2). M. leprae (4.41 MB) . Genes (circles 1 & 2), 1116 pseudogenes (circles 3 & 4). Representative gene arrangements in 50 kb segments of yeast, fly and human DNA. Few yeast genes contain introns (exons are blue). Genes above and below the line are transcribed in opposite directions. Numbers and types of genes in different eukaryotes About half the genes encode proteins of unknown function. Human genome: <2% ORFs & 48% repeats Human genome: <40,000 genes Average ~ 3 proteins/ gene 98% of DNA is noncoding I ndividuals 99.9% identical (1 difference/ 1000 bp means...
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10.genomes - Genomes summary 1. >930 bacterial...

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