ET-Ch05 - The Eukaryotic Cell it What's different than in...

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Unformatted text preview: The Eukaryotic Cell it What's different than in prong-totes? ' Membrane bounded nucleus and organellea ' Extensive eompartmentalization and internal organization * A diploid complement of linear elnomosomes eomplexed 11-?itl1l1istone proteina NUCLEUS l—I Nuclear N uclear mam mane mm H ucleulu s M itachondri on Lysosrume Hihofiome Golgi apparatus Rough ER Smmth ER _ Mituchond r1'a Flagella and cilia: locomotion ' Eulcaryctic flagella are chemically different frcm bacterial cheer while they haye aimilar fuiict1cha {Bacterial flagellar filamenta are made cf the pretem flagellmi while 111 eulcaryctea they are maele cf a certam arrangement {_"!§}+2”'} cf irricrctuhulea [the preteiir tubuliii. ]} * A eulcaryctic cell may pcaaeaa cilia {cs'hich haye 11c bacterial equiy.-*ale11t'] they haye the aame structure aa flagella. but are ahcrter and mcre iiuiriercua Cell walls and the ghee-003133 Algae have eell o-*alls made largely of eellulose.. a simple glueose polymer Animal eells and protozoa have no eell walls Fungal eells heme eell walls made of ehltlnt whieh 1s essent1all}? a repeatmg NAG pols-met. NopeptnloglyeanlfHHHHHHHHHfHHH Annual eells and protozoans often have a glyeoealyx {outermost layer} assoelated with their plasm a membrane; it may have to do with adhesion and proteetlon of the cell. and basleall}? resembles the prolong-one eounterpart. The plasma membrane - Consists of a phospholipid bilayer associated with various proteins (the fluid-mosaic model) GIN-{HIM GMDDFIZIIIIEII'I Meier functions * Delinente eell boundary: and 110ch in the eententn ' Te eentrel trannpertntien of Subetaneee into and out eftlle cell {the}? are Selee-tix'el}? permeable). * There are four ways for thing to get rue-r033 a pla 31113 111e111brnne. .. I Transport. processes Simple diffusion - carbon dioxide, oxygen Osmosis - water Fae-ilitated (passis'e') diffusion - glue-ose — Requires earrier protenL but no energy Ae-tis'e transport - Ions (Nai IQ) — Requires carrier protein and energy Simple Diffusion and Osmosis ' Simple diffusion is a general principle of chemistry - things more along their concentration gradient from higher to lesser concentration. In this context. molecules or atoms that can use simple diffusion to cross a 111embrane hare properties that allow them to “act” as if the membrane is not there - it presents no barrier to such entities. 1* Osmosis is really a special case of diffusion: the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane along its conc-entra-‘Ition gradient. Tonicity and osmotic relationships - Isotonic - concentration of water the same inside/outside '- Hypotonic - concentration of water is geater outside '- Hypertonic - concentration of water is greater inside Piaf-ma Blue- arrows inrlirate the membrane H'IDUE'IT'IEI'IT Gf L'IJ'HTE'r. In a hypotonic In an isotonic In a hypen'onic solution water solution there solution water enters the cell. is no net movement Eeaues the cell. which can burst. of wateL 1which contracts. ' During facilitated diffusion the transported substance is following its concentration gradient but is too large too polar.. or both. to cross the membrane A specific- transmenlhrane transport protein acts to “open a selec-tis'e door” to the molecule in question. {nice the door is open diffusion proceeds No energy is requirecli ' During ac—tis'e transport, molecules are “pumped” from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration. This requires not only a selective transport protein but one that can h}='c|rol}s'ze ATP for energy; as this process definitely requires energy. Facilitated Diffusion (Passive Transport) Extracellular environment Direction af Diffusion Transport PhDEF’l‘IflliPid Cytoplaer Protein Elllifll}"0tl0 organelles The nucleus Ir Centaina the genetic 111aterial (DNA) in the form eflengi linear elu‘enleaenlea. “Centrel center” or “brain” of the cell * Haa a nuclear enx'elepe CDflSiStiflg eftwe plaanla 111e111hranea dotted with nuclear perea. * A K'iaihle nue-leelua ia the site ef production of riheaemal auhunita. Nuclear enveiope Nucleulus Nuclear pores Chromatin EndOplasmic reticulum (ER?) Ir Port of t116 6-}='to1116n1111*an6 337316-1111 t116 ER 1:1 a continuous 116t117o1*l~: oftul1611 Slll‘l‘OllflClC—d 11}? 11 Singl6 1116111111‘111161 * Rough ER 111111 nonooiut6cl11111161111163 and funotionu 11131111}? in tr:-1111111ortinitt,F 111*ot6i1111 to t116 111313111111 11161111113116 for 3661*6tion or 1111161111111. T116 1*ou gh ER o1‘igi11ot611 f1*o111 t116 out61* 1111616111 11161111113116 ' Smooth ER 1111114 no nouooiut6d 11111131111163, and i131 inx'oh'6dwitl1 lipid 11iouynt116ui31 111111111g otl161* thingu. Rnugh ER Ribnmme The Golgi Complex * Seriea afflattencd aac-a thc Chilgi apparatus rec-eh'ca proteins and lipida from the ER“ the-11 aorta“ packagea and dalix'cra the-111 to their final claatiflationa Yifl accretar}? Yeaiclea. Thcae deatinatiana inc-lucla lyaaaonma and the plaama 1116111brane. Lysoscmcs ' Intracellular rccycling ccntcrcr a cac- surrcundcd b}? cnc 111c111br311c ccntaining YflflOUS ll}-—*£lfl:1l}-*tic- clay-"111cc. * If ycuTrc a prctczcmL tllc l}-*ccccmc is. ycur “ctcnmcll and intcstincc”. ' L.-}-='ccccnml ctcragc diccaccc cxict in which 1113tcrifllc build up in thc lyscccmcc. fcr cxamlplc Eur-Sachs; diccaccl Ribosomes 1' Just like in 131*01~:31*}-*0t¢3., but bigger. ' PR£ITJTEIN SYNTHESIS Mitochondria Consist of a double 111e111hm11e; the inner one is. hi glll}-—* folded and the fOlIZlS are called erir'stae. The soluble portion is; ealled the matrix. The}? function in aerobic- eellular reepimtien (I generation of ATP) and. are pre3e11t in all eulwryetie eellfl. h-Iiteehencllifl have their 011-11 riheeemes and a Single“ circular DNA molecule. Mitochondrion Structure Inner Guter Membrane Membrane |_’_J Doubie Membrane Chloroplasts (Tennist eftwe 111e1nbrnne3 and a series. of internal 111e1nbrnneus fines. enlled t11}-='lnl~:ei(:l3; fine-lee thll}-"lfll~10l£l3 are enlled gene These contain the ClllOl‘Opllfi-"ll The SDlUl‘JlC inner portion in called the Stl‘flfllfl. Function in pllOtOS}-"lltll¢fllfl in algae Chlornplnnts enntnin their 011711 ribosomes and a Single“ eireular DNA 11lnleeule. Chinroplast Envelope [Double Membmnel DNA Strand Thylakuids 5t mma F05 HibfiS-DME'S The End053-rmbi0nt Theory * It ia fairly well eatahliahetl that hath 111iteehen£lria and ehlereplaata are erelutienar}? clerirecl from bacteria. Thia idea 1.17am put forth by L }-"1111 i\-—1argulia. ' Leek at them - they are the size and shape of haeteriaL and each haa ita 01.1711 eireular {31111711140 301116:- I It (iielletie eempariaena hare shown illiteehendria and ehlereplaata to he phylagenetic-all}? related to particular bacteria. ...
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ET-Ch05 - The Eukaryotic Cell it What's different than in...

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